1.1 BackgroundDinoflagellates are unicellular protists which exhibits a great diversity of form.
They are microalgae which are significant part of primary planktonic production in water bodies and also responsible for harmful algal blooms (Isabella et al., 2006). Dinoflagellates species can be heterotrophic ,autotrophic or mixotrophic.(Wenhui et al.,2014) They have structure which is characterized by the presence of two flagella providing them the propulsive force to move in water and hold position in water column according to nutrient availability(Isabella et al., 2006). Some Dinoflagellates are parasites on the fish or on other protists.
However, most dramatic effect of Dinoflagellates on the other living organisms comes from the Coastal marine species which bloom during the warm months, reproducing in large numbers that make waters appear golden or red, reproducing a red tide. Such blooms associated with red tides impacts on many kinds of marine life, due to the production of neurotoxins which affect muscle function in susceptible organisms.Dinoflagellates produce toxins that may affect public health through the consumption contaminated seafood such as oyster, clams and mussels or direct exposure to HABs.Toxins can cause significant diseases in human beings. These illnesses include Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), Neurotoxins Shellfish Poisoning (NPS) and Ciguatera Fish poisoning (Isabella et al., 2006).Marine algal toxins are responsible of more than 60000 intoxification /year, with overall mortality of about 1.5%.
They also responsible for mortality in Seabirds, marine mammals and other animals depending on marine food web (Bibak &Hosseini, 2013)Algal blooms occur worldwide naturally in eutrophic waters, especially during warmer temperatures in areas where there is poor circulation. Recently factors such as global warming, increased nutrient loading from human activities and transport of algal species via ship ballast waters, have caused an increase in and spread of algal blooms (Bibak &Hosseini, 2013)Such diseases can be serious but are not usually fatal. Such blooms of Dinoflagellates are associated with anthropogenic activities with increased nutrients input as well as enrichment of coastal waters including creeks such as Kilifi creek.1.2 Problem statementThe occurrence of harmful algal blooms associated with golden and red tides have increased in the coastal waters due to discharge of untreated sewage and other effluents resulting in nutrients enrichment of these ecosystems. This presents high risks of the associated factors such neurotoxins which affect many organisms including humans.Consequently, blooms of Dinoflagellates are likely to trigger diseases such as ciguatera and paralytic shellfish poisoning posing a serious health issues to the coastal communities.
In Kilifi, the creek has witnessed tremendous development associated with the emergency of the county governments and the increased beach development into the creek increases the risk associated with nutrient enrichment, algal blooms and neurotoxins poisoning among the vulnerable communities of the creek and identifies the potential risks for neurotoxins food poisoning.1.3 Aims and objectivesThe main aim of The overall objective is to determine the Dinoflagellates species dynamics in the coastal waters of Kilifi creek.1.
4 Specific objectivesTo determine the Dinoflagellates species in Kilifi creekTo determine the abundance of Dinoflagellates species in Kilifi creekTo assess the physic-chemical parameters in the coastal waters of Kilifi creek1.5 Research QuestionsWhat are the Dinoflagellates species that are found in the coastal waters of kibokoni and seahorse?Between the two sampling stations, which has one has more composition and abundance of Dinoflagellates species?What is the significantly difference in values between the physic-chemical parameters in Kibokoni and Seahorse?.1.6 JustificationThe results of this research will provide important information concerning the little known plankton species which pose potential health risks to the communities in Kilifi Creek. Data and information from the study will provide fishery managers and policy makers with baseline information for proper planning on integrated coastal development , management of waste and nutrients input into the creek and coastal waters and also a useful guide for coastal aquaculture and agriculture development to manage nutrient discharge into the creeks and coastal waters.
Furthermore, the data and information will be of immense value to environmentalists for proper treatment of waste and sewage, to minimize the occurrence of algal blooms and red tides. CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEWAlgal blooms were observed along the coastal waters of the Gulf of Mane and Pacific Northwest. A study shows that the Dinoflagellates Alexandrium fundyense and Alexandrium catanella were responsible for the formation of these blooms. (Isabella et al.., 2006). Cases of blooms covering vast area of coastal waters have been witnessed in the Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of Florida while in Europe recent blooms phenomena have been described in countries like Greece and France (Isabella et al.
, 2006).The Gonyaulax Dinoflagellates blooms and produce saxitoxin, that have been observed off the west coast of North America, and Alexandrium off the northeast coast which accumulates in shellfish. Eating contaminated shellfish causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).The PSP causes respiratory failure and death within 12 hours.
Another toxin that accumulates in shellfish is brevetoxin, produced by the Dinoflagellates Karenia brevis (Isabella et al., 2006) Brevetoxin also causes respiratory irritations in humans especially in beach zones where many people engage themselves in recreational activities such surfing Karenia bloom produces toxicity that causes asthma –like breathing symptoms .These conditions are more experienced mainly along the Gulf coast of Florida..A toxin produced by the Dinoflagellates Dinophysis causes Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), which results in digestive upset but which is not fatal.
Ciguatera is another form of Dinoflagellates toxicity in tropical areas caused by eating fish contaminated by toxins of the Dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus toxicus.The Dinoflagellates Dinophysis species produces diarrheic shellfish poison (Kim et al., 2010).The effects of climate change are particularly noticeable in these shallow ecosystems whereby increased temperatures during the warm months warm enhances the reproduction of Dinoflagellates into large number that blooms resulting into red tides which pose ill health effects due to the production of toxins.(shah et al. ,2008)When these Dinoflagellates bloom, their toxins accumulates in clams, mussels and oysters that ingest them. Outbreaks of PSP in mussels and oysters caused by Alexandrium, Gymnodininium catenatum Graham and Pyrodinium bahamense (Satoshi et al.
, 2007)Urban and storm run-off often contains high concentrations of nutrients, oxygen consuming wastes, pathogens and toxic substances such as pesticides, heavy metals and oils are some of the causes of these blooms (Hossain et al., 2012).These enrichment of aquatic ecosystem such as the coastal waters may lead to eutrophication, which associated with sewage and /or sewage effluent discharge into the streams that feed aquaculture ponds.Variation in Dinoflagellates species distribution and abundance are mostly influenced by the changes in environmental conditions such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, nutrients and temperature (Vajravelu et al., 2017)Research studies have shown that salinity influence the growth potential and toxin production of harmful Dinoflagellates (Errera &Campbell,2012)However, many Dinoflagellates species are photosynthetic in that they occupy the starting point of the food chain of the aquatic environment helps in assessing the fisheries yield.This study aimed to improve on the understanding of environmental factors that control Dinoflagellates species that blooms causing red tides in order to be able make predictions about the abundance ,seasonal dynamics and the potential hazards associated with the toxic algal blooms in the coastal waters of Kilifi creek ,north coast Kenya.2.1 Classification of Dinoflagellates speciesDinoflagellates exhibit a wide divergence in morphologically and size.
They range in size from 1µm to >1mm.(Faust & Gulledge, 2013).The presence of the cell structure(theca) act as a major tool in differentiating them with other phytoplankton that causes algal blooms.(Faust & Gulledge, 2002).
Cell, shape and surface ornamentation such as the presence of pores spines and ridges are the features that are mainly used in identification of Dinoflagellates species.(Faust & Gulledge,2002) Dinoflagellates have different cell type which is also as distinct feature in the process of identifying and classifying them. These cell type include the desmokont which has two dissimilar flagella inserted apically whereas dinokont has dissimilar flagella inserted ventrally (Faust & Gulludge, 2002)Some species of Dinoflagellates are armored in that they have the theca which is the outer covering cell structure and other species do not have the theca.
This also can be used as a feature in identifying the different type of the Dinoflagellates species.2.2 Harmful algal blooms and its economic impactsRed tides are conditions when a Dinoflagellates population increases to such huge numbers that it discolors the water.
This “bloom” may be caused by nutrient and hydrographic conditions, although the environmental conditions which result in red tides are not completely understood. For Dinoflagellates red tides, the water is discolored red or brown due to as high as 20 million cells per liter. (Isabella et al., 2006).Some red tides are luminescent; most in southern California create dramatic nighttime displays of bioluminescence in the wakes breaking on the beach. A synopsis of the putative mechanisms responsible for these red tides is kindly provided by Prof. Wolfgang Burger, a geologist and former Interim Director of SIO:They have been increasing in worldwide.
The impacts of these blooms are felt in many ways ,for example ,marine life is greatly affected when exposed to the toxins whereby the top predators may end up dying affecting the trophic levels within the marine ecosystem.( Calabretti et al., 2017)In Florida, massive fish killing of up 100tonns due to toxins produced by the blooms have been estimated during active red tides.(Bibak & Hossein,2013)2.3 Ways to Control Harmful Algal BloomThe following are some of the mitigation measures that could be employed in controlling the spread of blooms in coastal waters.2.3.1 Mechanical ControlIn this method involves physical removal of algal cells from the water through filtration, skimming, Ultrasound and electrolysis (Bibak & Hosseini, 2013).
Flocculation method have been highly considered as one of the only HAB control method technologies with a partially successful track record in the marine environment(Bibak & Hosseini,2013).This method flocculation involves the treatment of blooms with flocculants clays which scavage particles ,including algal cells from sea water and carry them to bottom sediments .In protection of recreational users of freshwaters temporally, pumping of surface algal scum from inshore areas has proven to be an effective mechanism (Bibak & Hossein, 2013).2.3.2 Chemical ControlThis method involves the use chemicals to kill or reduce the density of HABs cells. Copper sulfate, sterol surfactants, Sodium hypochlorite, magnesium hydroxide and others have been tried for control of HABs organisms (Bibak &Hosseini, 2013) Researchers observed that most chemicals tried have been too expensive and too non-specific causing damage to non target components of the marine ecosystem. Therefore, this method has been effective in treating blooms in drinking waters supplies and other enclosed systems.
Ponds uses blue dyes to limit penetration of the wavelengths of light required for photosynthesis and thus reduce the growth of algae which results to algal blooms when reproduction is in large number.2.2.
3 Biological ControlBiological control of algal blooms could include enhancement of existing predators, isolation of novel species and genetic engineering .Biological control organisms include species that feed, infect, or decompose HAB species (Bibak &Hosseini, 2013).Copepods and ciliates can be used to graze on algae and Dinoflagellates and some viruses ,parasites and bacteria that have a control mechanism tend to be abundant in marine ecosystem which sometimes are host-specific and have high reproductive output.For example Diatom is used to control red tides due to Chanttonella red tides that occurs when diatoms are scarce in surface waterCHAPTER THREEMATERIALS AND METHODSStudy areaKilifi is a town on the coast of Kenya located 56 Kilometers northeast by road of Mombasa –Malindi. The decimal latitude and longitude coordinate for Kilifi -3.63045, 39.
84992. Latitude position from equator is 404km (251mi) and Kilifi is 9603km (5967mi) south pole. The longitude position from prime meridian is 4422km( 2747mi) and Kilifi GMT:+3h(Greenwich Mean Time). The town lies on the Kilifi Creek and sits on the estuary of the Goshi River. (Weiss et al 2006).The study will be conducted in Kilifi creek with two sampling sites; Mnarani which is located near the creek mouth and Kibokoni located in the inner creek with the intense activities of small –scale earthen pond shrimp culture.
Along the coast of Mnarani restaurants and hotels have been established making a suitable site for recreational activities such as water skiing, windsurfing and boat riding.Figure 2: A map of Kenya (inset) showing the location of the study site, Kilifi creek north coast Kenya.3.1 Sampling and Data collectionPlankton’s samples will be collected every two weeks from specific points of the sampling sites at a depth of 20cm below the surface using both sampling bottles and plankton nets of 25µm mesh size.The samples collected from the sampling sites will be fixed in 5% formalin on site.Secchi desk with black and white standard coded color will be used for measuring the transparency of the coastal waters where by the disappearing and reappearing will be recorded from the selected sampling sites. Sampling bottles will be used in fetching surface water samples once in a month between 10:00-11hrs which will be bought into the laboratory for analysis of the physic –chemical parameters such as nitrates and phosphate.
For species identification, the samples will be gently shaken to re-suspend all materials in the sampling bottle. It will be allowed to settle down for a minute and then four drops will be removed from the middle of the sample and placed on the glass slide of the contrast microscope of magnification 100x-400x Physical parameters such as temperatures .PH and Salinity will be measured on the site by using the standard instruments.3.2 Data analysisThe mean number of plankton will be recorded and expressed numerically per liter of the coastal water.Species diversity will be estimated by the formula of Simpson’s index of Biodiversity.
OrD=/N (N-1)n=the total number of organisms of a particular species N=the total number of organisms of organisms of all species.Significant differences in monthly parameters such as temperatures and nutrient concentrations between the stations will be identified using one-way ANOVA.A x2 test will be applied to identified significant differences in mean Dinoflagellates group between the months.4.0 EXPECTED OUTCOMEThe proposed study will provide information about the following:Types of Dinoflagellates species and their abundance between the study areas (Kibokoni and Seahorse).
The analysis of physic-chemical parameters such as nitrates and phosphates will clearly indicate the study area that is more likely to have algal blooms.Final detailed thesis report required in partial fulfillment of 4th year study in Marine Biology and Fisheries.CHAPTER 4Table 1: BudgetItem Quantity(Nos.) Unit cost Total cost (KES)Cyber café 5 400 2000Transport 20 100 2000Stationary 6 5 300Posters 2 500 1000Total cost 5300CHAPTER 5Table 2: Work Plan MonthActivity Sep OctNovDec Jan Feb Mar AprSearch for titleProp.1st draftFinal prop. DraftProposal Defense Data collectionData organization & Analysis Thesis drafting Progress Report Final thesis writing and defenseCHAPTER SIX6.0 REFERENCESAligizaki, K.
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