1 General introduction 3D – Printing is a process of manufacturing or creating a three dimensional solid objects using a digital machine or digital file. It is also known as additive manufacturing. This is done by additive process. On this process, object is created by thousands of tiny little solid objects which stick together to form a solid object. 3D object is made from bottom to top by layers and layers.
These layers are thin and each of these layers can be seen as thinly sliced which is on crossed horizontal position of the object. 3D printers can also create moving objects like wheel and hinges because of this it is very complex printing. So, 3D printers are new generation of computers which can make most of the things. (Robert Dehue, Pieter Strikwerda, 2017) The history of 3d printing was accomplished from inkjet printer. Using some application and advance concept on inkjet concept, technology was developed of 3D- printing from ink to materials. (T.Rowe price, 2011)1.2 Current ScenarioFlash forwarded to present day there are different types of 3D printing methods and some of them are laser, and objects.
Those objects that are used on this 3D printer is plastic, paper, metals and human cells. And as the type of object made by it, 3d print is used on different sectors according to size of object and material. (Elizabeth Matias, 2015)Some of the common applications of 3D- printing are as follows:-1.
Rapid Prototyping2. Tinkering3. Small Batch Production4. Personal Manufacturing5.
On Demand ManufacturingThere are numerous territories where 3D printing truly is making huge change, especially in outlining and prototyping new items, in expressions of the human experience, and in picturing conceptual ideas. (horvath, 2014)However, for the current situation 3D printing has grown its popularity most of the fields like research and educational field. (Elizabeth Matias, 2015)Use of 3d print is mostly growing on medical fields as 3d print can be done from human cells too.
Currently University Hospital in Bialystok is using human cell 3d print for plastic surgery. (BARBARA LEUKERS, HU LYA GU LKAN, STEPHAN H. IRSEN, STEFAN MILZ, 2011)2 Background 2.1 Elaboration3D printing generally called additive manufacturing creates 3D models into solid inquiries by building them up in layers. The advancement was first created in the 1980s, and since that time has been used for quick prototyping.
Regardless, in these couple of years, 3D printing has started to form into a front line creating advancement that can allow the area, on-ask for age of definitive things. Starting at now it is possible to 3D print using different materials like thermoplastics, thermoplastic composites, pure metals, metal alloys, ceramics and various forms of food. Notwithstanding, in the coming decades, and in blend with fabricated science and nanotechnology, 3d print can make a change in creation and collaborations frames. (Barnatt, 2016)2.2 Technologies used in 3d printingSome of the technologies that are used on 3d printing are as follows:-2.2.
1 Stereo lithography (SLA)Stereo lithography is a 3d printing strategy that can be utilized to execute tasks that include 3D printing of articles. This technique is the most established one in history of 3D printing and is yet being utilized these days. It helps to transform models into a genuine 3D printed question. SLA printing machines don’t work as usual desktop printers which extrude some amount of ink to the surface. It works with excess of liquid plastic 2.2.
2 Digital light processing (DLP)Digital Light Processing is a comparable procedure to stereolithography in that it is a 3D printing process that works with photopolymers. The real distinction is the light source. DLP utilizes a more regular light source, for example, a curve light with a fluid gem show board, which is connected to the whole surface of the vat of photopolymer tar in a solitary pass, for the most part making it quicker than SL (think3d, 2014)2.2.3 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)Fused Deposition Modeling is unparalleled freedom design and coupled with strong thermoplastics. It creates production parts and functional prototypes with outstanding thermal and chemical resistance with excellent strength -to weight ratios. FDM technology is widely spread nowadays in variety of industries such as automobile companies and food companies for new product development, model concept and prototyping and even in manufacturing development.
(staratsys direct, 2017)2.2.4 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)Specific Laser Sintering (SLS) is a system that utilizations laser as power source to frame strong 3D objects which was developed by Carl Deckard, an understudy of Texas University, and his teacher Joe Beaman in 1980s.stereolithography is some way similar to this technology. The main difference between SLS and SLA is that it uses powdered material in the vat instead of liquid resin as stereo lithography does. (3d printing from scratch, 2015)2.3 Current scenario in Nepal3d printing technology is still infancy in Nepal and people are learning and finding its uses in daily life.
In Nepal 3d printing is used is different places for different purposes like as in medical field, industries and designing products. It was often used to mend pipes after the Nepal earthquake at camp in Bahrabise, central Nepal, where 200 families were there. (jones, 2015) One area where 3D printers have turned out to be surprisingly useful is in the area of prosthetics. As a girl named Sabita who was physically disabled – lost her both hand due to electric shock now can write properly by the help of prototype 3D printed prosthetic. Like this it has been used to make different objects which even make disabled person to work as normal people and change their lifestyle. (Neve, 2017) 3d printing has been a disaster hacker for current situation as 3D printing can reduce both the cost and time it takes to bring medical equipment to those who need it most. It has been beneficial for poor, handicapped and as well as normal people too.
(Rai, 2017)3 Implementation3D printing could become a disruptive force that in future redefines traditional manufacturing and supply chain strategies. It is relatively clear that 3D printing will not be used to mass produce anything and everything such as run-of-the mill commodity goods. But can be used to make spare parts in cheap price due to which Companies may no longer need to store spare parts physically in a warehouse. It can be used on hospitals on medical fields and prosthetic area.