Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Boyd Warren
Last updated: May 23, 2019
1. Introduction Field excursions provideopportunities for students to observe and explore new things in the real world andplays an important role in learning and sharing experience.
As part of the learning experience under the selected topic modulein the second semester, the field trip was organized for the Tropical Forestrymaster degree students for a period of one week with effect from 24th to29th April 2017. The main aim of the field excursion was to get thefirst insight into forest landscape restoration (FLR) programs in diverseenvironmental and social setting. The field trip was well-designed and well-planned byour course moderator, Assistant Professor Damrong Pipatwattanakul (Ph.
D), Kasetsart University,Bangkok, Thailand. An itinerary was framed in an integrated manner that offeredus tremendous learning potential on FLR principles and management strategiesapplied in multifaceted landscapes from the mountainous landscape of KhaoyaiNational Park to the coastal mangrove areas of Thailand. FLR is generally applied to improve ecological integrity andhuman well-being in the deforested and degraded areas, with an aim to enrich localecosystem functions (McCracken, 2007). Themain focus of FLR in Thailand is to revive ecological and economic output ofnatural forest ecosystem without causing any detrimental effect in the processof conversion, whilealso contributing socio-economic benefits to local communities.
Restoration programs cover entire landscapes and integrate mosaicland uses including protected areas, biological corridors, regenerationforests, other natural ecosystems such as agroforestry, agriculture, improvedagricultural fallows, plantations, riparian strips, etc. Our field observationsindicated that FLR activities in Thailand provided ecological, social andeconomic benefits in the specific area of degraded and deforested lands. Therefore,understanding social, legal and institutional contexts is inevitable for the formulationof enabling strategies and successful implementation of FLR programs at thenational, regional and local level.This report contains a separate description for each place ofvisit as per the field program (Appendix 1) that includes a visit to Cellox paperfactory at Prachin Buri Province, Khaoyai National Park, Hornbill project site,Khao Hin Sorn Development Study Centre at Panom Srakarm District, ChachoengsaoProvince, Agroforestry Research Centre and Provincial Office for NaturalResource and Environment and Mangrove forest areas at Trat Province.
The reportfollows a similar structure for each program, which begins with a briefbackground description followed by our pertinent observations on managementinterventions and strategies, with the discussion on critical issues and identificationof potential opportunities in some areas.2. ObjectivesSince the main focus of selected topic module wasbroadly on forest landscape restoration programs, the objectives were designed asfollows: To explore relevant, applicable and realistic restoration intervention types across various forest landscapes. Assess the management strategies adopted for various forest landscape restoration programs in diverse environmental and social setting. Analyse forest landscape restoration issues and identify potential opportunities. 3. Programs 3.
1 Cellox Paper Factory 3.1.1 BackgroundBerli Jucker Cellox (BJC) factory is located in Prachin Buri Province, about 100 Km in the North-Eastof Bangkok.
The manufacturing plant was established in 1987 and belongs to TCC(Thailand Covenant Church) group of Thailand. The factory covers a total area of 94Rai (approx. 5.04 hectares). BJC is recognized for its leading marketing, sales and distribution systems inThailand and in Asia. BJCpaper plant produces toilet and facial tissues, kitchen towels and tablenapkins branded by names such as Cellox, Zilk and Maxmo.
These manufacturedproducts are supplied through major retailers like Makro, Lotus and Tops inThailand. The plant has an annual capacity of producing 25,000 tons per annum. The company has a long-term vision to provide integratedsupply chain solution in the region, provide top quality products and providebest services to the people. The primary mission of the company is to deliver high-qualityproducts and provide dedicated services to the customers.
In the context oforganization structure, the company has highly experienced and respectfulmanagement team with single-mindedness to further expand the performance of thecompany. The staffing pattern is well-organized with the inclusion of harmoniouscorporate values and culture that form an ideal workplace to drive change,maximize business opportunities and stride towards excellence.3.
1.2 Rawmaterials The primary source of raw materials for the Celloxfactory is fibre pulps obtained from eucalyptus trees. The raw materials, bothshort and long fibre pulps are imported from US, New Zealand, Canada, Chile,Brazil, Sweden, Indonesia and the Czech Republic. About 100 tons of rawmaterials are consumed by the factory in a day. The factory also uses fibrerecovery plant to recycle and produce quality tissue paper from used officepapers through De-inking Process (DIP) that produces multiple productsincluding pure virgin pulp tissue paper to pure re-cycled pulp tissue-paper. Although, Thailand possesses hugeforest resources including eucalyptus and acacia plantations, however, the majorityof fibre inputs or wood pulps are imported, rather than meeting from domesticsources. The imports of raw material is an issue because of global presence insupply chains.
The global nature of supply means that traceability in identity,safety and suitability of products becomes opaque, due to several sources,traders and middlemen. Further, in order to ensure suppliers meetthe required standards and specifications, raw materials are required to be tested through expert inspection. Identification process entails testing ofchemical, microbiological, mechanical and physical properties. This escalates theoperational costs and consumers are likely to be affected by the market prices.On other hand, farmers will lose interests to take up tree plantations producingpulps, which may have the direct impact on the national interest of increasing theforest cover area.
Therefore, government and policy maker’s needs to reformtaxation policies and system that those imported products are levied heavy taxesto encourage the use of available domestic resources. The internal supply chaincan be intensified through expansion of marketing outlets and providing goodincentives to raw material producers. 3.1.3 Economic benefitsWith the total production capacity of 25,000tons per annum, the Cellox factory provides a substantial number of well-payingjobs to the provincial workforce. The company has more than 12,000 employeesengaged in several supply chains such as packaging, consumer, healthcare andtechnical, modern retail, business partner group, etc. In 2016, the company haspaid a total remuneration of about 9607.
7 million baht including salaries,bonuses, provident fund and other welfare payments (BJC, 2016). In terms of revenue generation, the companyhas generated a total amount of about 120,741.61Thai baht as of 3rd quarter of 2017 fiscal current year (http://investor.bjc.co.
th/financial_highlights.html, assessed on 8th January 2018) from the sale of goods and rendering of services. The total incometax expense was 576.482 million baht as of 30th September 2017, which indicate a significant contribution to the nationalrevenue and benefits to the local communities in terms of both economic andsocial development. 3.1.2 Management of wastewater andtreatmentDuring the process of pulping, many types of solidwastes and sludge are generated. Solid wastes are largely produced frompulping, deinking processes and wastewater treatment.
Two types of sludge aregenerated in the factory while pulping, papermaking and deinking namelywastewater treatment sludge and deinking sludge. The company has onsite wastewater treatment sludge, which is treated intwo stages. The primary treatment is done in the first pond throughsedimentation or floating method, where suspended solids are removed towastewater treatment sludge.
The secondary treatment is done through biologicaltreatment (in aerobic or anaerobic conditions), where soluble organic compoundsare converted to carbon dioxide, water and biomass by microorganisms present inaerobic sludge. The surplus biomass gets settled, which is separated in thesecondary clarifier (settling tanks) and are recycled back to the pulping process. Based on our observations, some actions from thecompany are recommended:· Since the company is facing the grave challenge onenergy price, exploring the use of the alternate source of energy such as solaror windmills is recommended.· An amount of waste generated can be reduced with efficient energy use, efficient production processand improved wastewater treatment technologies. · Since the deinking sludge has high ash content(Bajpai, 2015), the company can explore further on the utility of sludgeproducts for conversion into fertilizers. · Secondary sledge (biological sludge) with highmicrobial protein content (organic compounds) that gets settled in clarifier(settling tanks) can be explored for application to agricultural land as soil-improvingorganic fertilizers, after removing chlorinated organic compounds(organo-halogens), which is highly toxic to both flora and fauna (Deviatkin, 2013).· Secondary sludge can be also incinerated in boilers (Deviatkin, 2013), butdue to very less solid contents, the steam generation capacity of a boiler canbe reduced, which may result in operational problems.· If a strict environmental regulation is applied, the company may need toinstall another treatment sludge as tertiary sludge, where unresolved sludgetreatment products from the first and second process can be further applied to onemixture together.
3.1.3 Human resource management The company has a set of human resourcesdevelopment policies to support, upgrade abilities and knowledge of employees byproviding career opportunities, developing succession plans for key positionsand developing leadership skills. Realizing the importance of knowledge andcapacities to boost human resource potential, the company follows annualtraining roadmap that includes classroom training, action-based learning, learningfrom experts and online learning. The programs cover all levels of employeesthat each has an opportunity to attain training at an average of twenty hoursper person. The company also provides training programson safety, occupational health, working environment and code of conduct. The companyhas developed corporate social and environmental responsibility (CSER) to improvethe quality of life, society and education. Through CSER programs, schoolinfrastructures are developed, teachers are rewarded, and poor students areprovided with scholarships.
The company follow strictly the labour law and donot employ under-age labourers. There is an overtime limitation to work foremployees. Labourers are provided with doctors and nurses for time to timephysical check-ups. In order to create a safe workplace for employees, visitorsand safeguard assets and resources of the company, programs on fire protection,fire extinguishers and fire evacuation are conducted. The company also supportspotential disabled people to work from their own place of living. For thesmooth compliance monitoring, both internal and external auditing system is inplace. The company has a policy of reward system for the competitive employeeswith the annual bonus based on performance.
Thus, above activities indicatedthat the company has a strong human resource policy and corporate socialresponsibility in-built in the programs, which has benefited the society atlarge.3.1.6 Quality control andmarketingThe company produces varieties ofhousehold health and hygiene papers such as toilet paper, facial tissue, napkinand other multi-purpose paper as per customer’s need. Thecompany is approved by the government to use a green label on their productswith branded names such as Cellox, Zilk, Maxmo, Belle and Deluxsoft (Fig.
1). The products are certified by ISO19001,ISO14001 and ISO18001 through rectification from ThaiStandard Industrial Classification (TSIC). The ISO19001 is certifiedbased on total quality management (TQM) that standardizesworking processes and encourage quality production (Intarajinda et al. 2011).
The ISO14001 is certifiedbased on environmental management system (EMS) that provides structure formeasuring and improving organization’s environmental impacts (Ibid). The ISO18001 iscertified based on occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS)that provides a system for measuring and improving organization’s health and safety impacts (Ibid). In order to meetcertification standards, an emphasis on managing organization’s impact on theexternal environment is done to reduce pollutionand comply environmental regulations. The company also focuses on managing organization’s internal environment to ensure TQM and safeworkplace.
With a strong commitment to increasing quality, the company hasexpanded its tissue market both inside in-country and abroad through advancedequipment, technology and systematic production strategies. The cellox productsare also designed and manufactured in taking into account the customerspreferences and needs closely from varied sizes, lengths, perforated marks,fragrances to different patterns.