1.) Please explain the impact that the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama had on the Civil Rights Movement.
A: The bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, was one of the inhuman acts of violence to happen during the Civil Rights movement that brought condemnation and anger from the world. On a Sunday morning of September 15, 1963, while a Sunday school was going on, a bombed went off in the basement of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham where four little girls were killed and dozens injured. As a result of the bombing, people went out to protest in the streets of Birmingham, due to that two young African American boys ended up dead. After a lot of investigation by the FBI, one of the men who participated on putting a homemade bomb in the church was caught, his name was Robert Chambliss, and unsurprisingly he was part of Ku Klux Klan, and was arrested and charged with murder and having dynamite without a permit. The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was later used to be one of the places of the central meetings for Civil Rights Activities and after was deliberated to be about the development of the Civil Rights Movement. However, the incident had an opposite effect; many people join the movement. According to Martin Luther King Jr, there were sympathy and support from White people. For this reason, African American sources accelerated in geometric proportion. “The number of S.C.L.C. affiliates jumped from 85 to 110, a survey conducted by News-Week during the summer of 1963, the surveys interviewed White people. The striking result disclosed that overwhelming majorities favored laws to guarantee Negros voting rights, job opportunities, good housing and integrated travel facilities.” Also, it helped build support in the John Kennedy administration for civil rights legislation, and all of these resulting into passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
2) After watching Four Little Girls, identify at least three White individuals who tried to suppress the Civil Rights Movement. Be specific in determining a.) who they were and b.) what they did to try and halt the civil rights movement?
A: Eugene “Bull” Connor was one of the white individuals who tried to suppress the Civil Rights Movement. He was a former Commissioner of Public Safety of Birmingham, Alabama and served for two years. Connor was in charge of the Birmingham Fire and Police Department. He was against the activities of civil rights movement and forced legal racial segregation and denied civil rights to black citizens. Connor became an international symbol of institutional racism. He ordered to use fire hoses and police attack dogs against the protestors of the civil rights movement even with children involved. Second, George Corley Wallace Jr. former governor of Alabama, and Wallace agreed with segregation and Jim Crow Laws. As a governor, he did everything in his power so that the attempts of the federal government to enforce laws to prohibit racial segregation in Alabama’s public school or other institutions did not get approved. He also stood in front of the University of Alabama to banning the Black students from enrolled in the university. Last, Robert Edward Chambliss was a racist, terrorist and member of United Klan’s of America. He was one of the men that plot the bomb in the 16th Street Baptist church that killed four girls and dozens got injured. He also firebombed much house that belongs to black families in Alabama.
3.) List the three elements that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., believed was necessary for the civil rights movement to flourish.
A: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was inspired by both Christian faith and the peaceful teaching of Mahatma Gandhi. For this reason, it led him to believed nonviolence was necessary for other for the civil rights movement to flourish. King thought that nonviolence was “the method for social reform that I had been seeking.” He believed nonviolence “…is a sword that heals. Both a practical and moral answer to the Negro’s cry for justice, direct nonviolence action proved that it could win victories without losing wars…” The second element is Inertia, which means the resistance to force. King would train the people who he marched with to not respond to the people that are criticism them while they are protesting for their rights. The people that are criticizing the march want the people that are marching to respond to them to start a fight, and that would make people think that African American people are not very serious about civil rights movement. Therefore, King thought this element was essential to the civil rights movement so that people could take them seriously. Religion was another element that King believed necessary for the civil rights movement to flourish. He felt the civil rights movement could be a sacred space because faith brings people together, no matter what you do or what race you come from, everybody is treated equally. This was supposed to show to people that he just wants everybody White and Back together by the bond of equal rights.
4.) Identify the following groups: SCLC, SNCC, CORE, MIA and explain their purpose and mission during the Civil Rights Movement.
A: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African American civil rights organization. This group started in the following of Montgomery Bus Boycott victory when Martin Luther King Jr, invited 60 African American ministers and leaders to form an organization that will support nonviolent direct action to end segregation on bus system first, but then they decided to stop all forms of discrimination. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was formed so that younger blacks could also have a voice in the civil rights movements. It started when a group of black students went to sit in lunch counters that were meant for whites only asking to be served but were denied. As a result, everybody started doing to demand equal rights. Ella Baker who was the director of SCLC helped set up the first meeting engorged the young adults in the organization to look further way than segregation and use King’s principle of nonviolence. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 on the University of Chicago campus. It was a nonviolence organization that fought for segregation, but later on, changed to focus towards the political ideology of black nationalism and separatism. In 1955 the organization went to the South and gave nonviolence training to the marches during the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott. The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed in December 1955 when Rosa Parks arrested due to the protest of Montgomery bus boycott. The organization fought for civil rights for African American and especially for segregation of the buses in Alabama’s capital city. The movement also was in charge of providing alternative transportation for those who refused to ride the buses.
5.) What was the central purpose of Why We Can’t Wait? Who was the intended audience for this book?
A: Why We Can’t Wait is a book written by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr; the book is about the nonviolent movement against racial segregation in the United States. King describes civil rights movement as the beginning of “Negro’s Revolution.” The purpose of the center of the book was to tell people why African American citizens could not wait anymore because of the injustice they would go in their everyday life. King presents historical examples and ethical arguments to explain the Civil Rights movement and to urge supporters to continue in their efforts at a crucial juncture in U.S. history. The buses were leaving people behind even after they have paid. When black people paid in the front, they had to get out of the bus and get in the back of the bus, but sometimes the driver would just leave them. The Black schools did not have the same qualities as the white school. African American were still being treated unequally, and the book was to explain to people some of the inequalities that took place during that time, so people understand why African Americans were just raising back then. The intended audience for this book was White people because they were criticism Martin Luther King Jr, and the African American community because they thought that African Americans were asking for too much when they were just asking for equal rights. Which White people did not understand because they did not notice some of the things Black people went through.
6.) Describe the role that the Black church played during the civil rights movement?
A: Since the preacher of the churches got their salary from the actual church and not from white men, they were to speak on whatever subject they wished; they could speak out against racism without having the fear to lose their job. The Black church had a significant impact on the Civil Rights Movement, a majority of people that volunteer to protest in marches were from churches, they were beaten up by the police and put in jail. The Black churches were the ones who created leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr and many other civil rights movement leaders. They gave hope to people that change was going to happen and segregation was going to end. They contributed financially and supported the movement. The leaders of the churches were critical to conveying the inspiring message of the civil rights struggle and drove those who were in favor of segregation to attack. They gave people the hope that God was on their side and God was going to help bring equality to all people in the U.S. The Black churches were used to organize, education about the movement and community engagement to those anonymous supporters.
7.) The 1970s was marked by scandal, protests and a war. Please detail some of the major events that transformed the nation between 1970-1975.
A: 1970 -President Richard Nixon invades Cambodian which led to opening a war in Vietnam. People across the United States protested against the war because they thought the war had anything to do with the U.S and the soldiers were just dying for no reason. Universities in the United States were shut down by students, and they were on strikes because of the announcement of the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia. An unskilled National Guard confronted and killed four protestors at Kent State University in Ohio during a protest. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution that authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to use military force against Southeast Asia without the approval of Congress was repeal by the U.S Senate. 1971- In this year on May anti-war vests tried to shut down the government in Washington because they also did not agree with the war in Vietnam but failed, many activists that were protesting were arrested, but most of the men were later released. Military’s secret, negative assessment of the Vietnam War was released and published by The Pentagon Papers. The fourth mission to go to the moon, Apollo 15 lands on the moon and uses the Lunar Rover vehicle for the first time. 1972- President Nixon makes an unknown eight-day visit to Communist China, which allowed American people to view image of China for the first time in two decades, and meets with Mao Zedong. The Watergate Complex where the Democratic Party offices were, was broken in by five men and people thought that President Nixon had something to do with it. The Munich massacre was an attack that happens during the 1972 Olympics in Munich, West Germany where eleven Israeli athletes were killed. The U.S Supreme Court rules on legalizing abortion (Roe v. Wade). Three countries such as Great Britain, Ireland and Denmark enter the European Economic Community. Finally, the mobile phone is invented. 1974- President Richard Nixon was impeached indicted by The House Judiciary Committee due to the Watergate Scandal, and Nixon was the first president to resign the office. The 19-year-old daughter of publisher billionaire Randolph Hearst named Patricia Hearst was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army and later she was photographed robbing a bank with her captors. Beverly Johnson becomes the first black model on the cover of Vogue or any other major fashion magazine. 1975- The last group of Americans was evacuated by helicopter from the roof of the embassy in North Vietnamese which declared the war in Vietnam over. Bill Gates and Paul Allen found the Microsoft Corporation.
8.) Describe the Feminist movement of the 1970s. How did it start and what did it achieve?
A: The 1970s was the third wave Feminist movement. It aimed at work inequality, such as denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity though anti-discrimination laws. Women were tired of being treated as second-class citizen. They demanded to be admitted to college the same rate as men. Women of color did not associate too much with some of the women movement because they barely talked about racial inequality. Therefore, they decided to create their organizations to fight against racial and gender oppression. Women wanted to be paid the same as men for the same work, and they also wanted to have a chance to work in jobs where only men were allowed. The case Reed V. Reed was declared sex discrimination a violation of the 14th amendment by the Supreme Court. The Equal Rights Amendment was approved by the Senate and was sent to the states for ratification so that it could be added to the constitution. First-trimester abortion was legalized in the case of Roe V. Wade. The changes were so uncontrolled that TIME awarded its “Man of the Year” in 1975 to “American women.”