Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Melody Mitchell
Last updated: October 2, 2019
1. With regard to the movie, what epidemiological insight did you gain?This film really gave me a good insight to what is involved in discovering a disease, where it originates from, how it spreads etc.
We saw clearly them calculating the R0 of the disease, the steps that are involved in discovering the incidence and prevalence of the disease. We also saw how they used a case control study to try out theories. It was very interesting that throughout the movie we saw the incidence of the disease increasing but also the mortality rate. As studying epidemiology this movie really showed us the key concepts that we learn being put into practice.
2. What epidemiological difficulties did the scientist face?The scientists faced a couple of setbacks which caused difficulties in the discovery of AIDS. Major researchers were not interested in conducting research on this mysteries disease as it was linked with the gay community and that it was possibly passed sexually. These were very taboo subjects at the time and scientists were not interested in having their name associated with these subjects. They firstly didn’t know what type of virus it was, how it was conducted or the incubation period.
When they finally started learning more about this disease they found it very hard for people to discuss their sexual history, orientation and who and how many sexual partners they have had. Many people of the gay community felt like the CDC were out to attack them and make them even more victims of abuse. This resulted in the gay community voting against the closing of bath houses which could have decreased the spread of AIDS. Funding was also a major difficulty that the scientists faced which really impacted on the speed of their research. 3. What public health measures would you consider important for the prevention of HIV transmission?I feel education is the main measure in preventing the transmission of HIV. If people know how it spreads and how easily it does then they may be more proactive in taking steps to prevent transmitting the disease or contracting it4. If you were to be one person in the movie, who would you be and why?I think I would like to be Dr.
Selma Dritz. She was very motivated and determined to try find out what was this disease. She was a great negotiator and found out information when nobody else could. Her findings really impacted on the research which showed how much of a hard worker she was.
She was a feisty character however always showed compassion where needed. 5. Write a paragraph on the discovery of HIV.HIV was first found in a blood sample which was collected in 1959 from a man living in the Congo. Rare types of pneumonia, cancer and other illnesses were increasing between the years 1979 and 1981 particularly in Los Angeles and New York. Doctors in Los Angeles and New York were worried about the increasing numbers and therefore reported it to the CDC. Among the patients were gay men who had sex with other men.The term AIDS was first introduced to the public to describe the occurrence of a Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in 1982 .
Monitoring and tracking of AIDS began that year in the United States. The virus which caused AIDS was discovered by scientists in 1983. For many years scientists didn’t know the origins of HIV and how it appeared in the human population. Then in 1999, an international team of researchers reported that they had discovered the origins of HIV-1 in the developed world. A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa had been identified as the original source of the virus.
The researchers believe that HIV-1 was introduced into the human population when hunters became exposed to infected blood. 6. What is the incidence of HIV globally?· According to the WHO 36.7 million people live with HIV globally.· 25.
6 million Africans.· 3.3 million Americans.
· 3.5 million South East Asians.· 2.4 million Europeans.· 360000 people living in Eastern Mediterranean.· 1.5 million people living in the Western Pacific.(World Health Organization, 2018) 7.
Who is most affected?· Gay and bisexual men remain to have the largest number of new diagnoses of HIV in the United States.· Certain ethic groups for example African Americans and Hispanics are more affected by· HIV compared to other racial groups.· Heterosexuals who have unsafe sex.· Transgender women who have sex with other men.· Injection drug users.
8. What is the incidence rate of HIV in Ireland?· There were 508 new diagnoses of HIV in Ireland in 2016, representing a rate of 10.7 per100,000 population. (HIV in Ireland, 2016). 9. Is HIV incidence increasing or decreasing?· Since 2010, new HIV infections among adults declined by an estimated 11%, from 1.
9 million 1.6 million–2.1million to 1.7 million 1.4 million–1.9 million in 2016.
· New HIV infections among children declined by 47% since 2010, from 300 000 230 000–370 000 in 2010 to 160 000 100 000–220 000 in 2016. (Unaids.org, 2018)