Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Darryl King
Last updated: February 24, 2019
1) Dosome Internet research on Chevron’s use of seismic imaging technology. Brieflyexplain how it works and how it has helped Chevron discover new oil and gasreservoirs. A) Seis??mic ??im??agi??ng ??is a??ninstru??ment that ric??ochets sound waves off underground shake structures touncover conceivable unrefined oil– and common gas– bearing arrangements. Seismologists utilizeultrasensitive gadgets ca??l??led geoph??ones to record the sound waves?? asthey?? reverberate inside the earth. By concentrate the echoes, oil geologistslook to figure the profundity and str??uctures of covered geologicdevelopments. This examination may enable them to distinguish oil-andgas-bearing supplies covered up underneath the world’s surface.Refined 3-D imaging makes top??notch pictures of subsurface geography.
The out??come is lik??e a X-be??am??outp??ut or?? medicinal sonogram th??at spreads a great many square m??iles ??andexpands 10 miles (16 km) or more into the earth. Programming to dissect thesepictures keeps on enhancing, and further developed PC??s now empowerre??earchers to analyze the informat??i??on ????ins??id??e da??ys instead ofmonths, ??speeding the reve??lation a??nd e??xtreme ??generation of oil?? and??gas.?? Rec??ord??ing ??vario??us 3-D?? revi??ews at ??various??circ??ums??tan??ces produces time slip by, or 4-??data. The pictures demonstrate arepository ??at vari??ous phases of consumption, permitting oil designers toenhance recuperation and deliver effe??ctively.Chevron’s restrictive seismicimaging innovation helped the organization accomplish an investigationdisclosure rate of 66 percent in 2014. This innovation enables Chevronresearchers to see underneath the world’s surface more obviously and preciselythan any time in recent memory. Utilizing these exclusive apparatuses,specialists have possessed the capacity to discover critical oil and petroleumgas stores in progressively difficult zones. In 1982, Chevron wound upnoticeably one of the principal vitality organizations to utili??ze asupercomputer and immediately received further developed parallel PCs thatenhanced seismic outcomes and lessened expe??nses exponentially.
After fifteenyears, chevron presented the bus??ses fundamentally. From that point forward,Chevron has kept on expanding upon this ability, always putting resources intoperpetually intense PCs as they end up plain????ly accessible, to em??powersp????eedi??e?? and bet??ter examin??ation.Reference: https://www.
chevron.com/storie??s/seismic-imaging 2) Dosome Internet research on security vulnerabilities associated with SCADA anddigital industrial control systems. Summarize the major security concernsassociated with these systems and steps than can be taken to enhance theirsecurity.A) Most o??fthe SCADA systems are vulnerable to cyber at????tacks due to the followingfactors:1) Lack ofMonitoring????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2) Slow Updates3) Lack ??ofknowledge about the ??dev????ices4) Notunderstanding traffic5) AuthenticationholesSCADA frameworks are not the same as general data frameworksas far as security administration. In the hazard and security administration ofgeneral data frameworks, in the wake of dissecting the advantages, dangers, andvulnerabilities of data frameworks and ascertaining the degrees of a hazard,safety efforts are organized for figuring the rest of the hazard. Conversely, for SCADA frameworks,the examination of the benefits is performed not from the perspective offrameworks but rather from the perspective of target offices oversaw andworked.Before, when SCADA fra????meworkswere autonomous and merchant controlled frameworks without any associations withdifferent frameworks and when the system convention was exclusive, just acouple of individuals, for example, engineers and programmers, knew about thepresence of SCADA establishments. In any case, the present SCADA frameworks aregenerally dispersed and organized.
Since the frameworks are subject to openconventions for the web, they are helpless against outside remote digitaldangers.The following steps concentates on actions to be taken toincrease security for SCADA systems:1) Identifyevery connection to SCADA networks.2) Detachsuperfluous connections with the SCADA networks.3) Assessand reinforce the security of any remaining connections to SCADA network4) HardenSCADA networks by removing or disabling unnecessary services.
5) Do notrely on proprietary protocols to protect your system6) Implementthe security features provided by device a????????????????????????????nd systemvendors.7) Establishstrong controls over any medium that is used as a backdoor into the SCADAnetwork8) Implement internal and externalintrusion detection systems and establish 24-hour-a-day incident monitoring.9) Perform tech??nical aud??its ofSCA??DA dev??ices and?? netw??orks, and?? a??ny?? ot??her conn??ectednetwo??rks, ??to ident??ify sec??urity conc??erns.10) Con??duct ph??ysica??l?? secu??ritysurvey??s and??asses??s al??l remot??e sit??es connec??ted to the S??CADAnetwo??rk ??to eval??uate t??heir secu??rity.
11) Esta??blishSCADA “Red Tea??ms” to identi??fy and evaluat??e pos??sible a??ttack sce??narios12) Clear??ly define cyber securit??yroles, respon??sibilit??ies, and?? autho??rities ??for ma????nagers, syste??madmin????is??trat??ors, a??nd u??sers13) Document netwo??rk arc??hitec??ture andide??ntify sys??tems t??hat serve crit??ical f??unctions ??or containsensitiv??e information t????hat req??uire addit??ional?? level??s ofpro??tection.14) Establish arigorous??, ongoing ??risk management process15) Esta??blis??ha network?? protection strategy based ??on the principle of defense-in-depth16) Establishsystem back??ups and ??disaster recovery plans.Refer??ence: ??https://energy.gov/sites/pro??d/files/oeprod/Do??cumentsandMedia/21_Steps_-_SCADA.pdf. 3) Discu??ss??the pros and cons of moving enterprise-wide applications that havetraditionally been supported on premises to the cloud.Pros of Cloud Computing:A) LoweringI??T costs: This i??s presumabl??y the absolu??te most convincing motivationbehin??d why o??rganizati??ons mo??ve their sys??tem (all o??r to somed??egree) to the cloud. Not ??exclu??sivel??y ??do you spare cash onprogramming licenses, however on equipment (ser??vers and wo??kstations) and inaddition on IT support and updates.
So in the event that you abhor alwayscomposin??g ??come depleting checks for IT updates, you’ll truly need toinvestigate distributed computing.B) Ability toaccess your desktop and additionally applications from anyplace and any gadget:In the event that you travel a considerable measure, have telecommuters or wantto utilize an iPad while voyaging and a tablet at your home, distributedcomputing will give you the capacity to work fro??m any of these gadgets.C) Calamit??yrecup??eration ??and reinfo??rc??ement a??re robo??tized??: The se??rve??r in??your?? office?? is greatly helple??ss against v????arious dangers, includinginfections, human blunder, equipment dis??ap??point??ment, progr??ammin??gdefile??ment and, ??obvi??ously, p??hysical?? harm be??cau??se of?? a f??ire??,s??urg??e or ??other?? catac??lysm??ic eve??nt. I??n th??e even??t t??hatyou??r serv??er wer??e in the cloud and (God rest??ric??t) you??r ??offic??ewas lessen??ed to?? a he??ap of rubble, you could buy anot??her t??ablet and b??emove down and?? running ar??ound the same ??time. T??his would NOT be thesituati??on on the off ??chance tha??t you had a conventional ??system and wereutilizing tape drives,?? CDs, USB drives o??r other physical stockpilinggad??gets to go down your system. Plus, similar?? to an open u??tility, cloudstages are s????ignif??icantly more powerful and secure than your normalbusiness arrange in light of the fact that they?? can use economies of scale toput vigorously into security, repetition and failover frameworks, making themfar more averse to go down.D) It’sspeedier, less expensive an??d less demanding to set up new representatives: Onthe ??off chance that you have a regular workforce or a great deal of turnover,distrib??uted computing won’t just lower your expens??es of s??etti??ng up newrecords, yet it will make it boundlessly speedier.E) It’s a”greener” innovation that will save money on i??nfluence?? and yourelectric bill:??For som??e littler organiz??ations, the powe??r reserve fundswill ??be too ??little to quantify.
Nonetheless, fo??r bigger organizationswith different servers that are cooling a hot server room and keep theirservers running day in and day out/365, the reserve funds are impressive.??Cons of Cloud ComputingA) TheInternet going down: ??While you can reliev??e this hazard b??y utili??zing abusin??ess review Internet ??association and keeping up a momen??treinforcem??ent assoc??iation??, t??here is a possibility you’ll lose Internetnetwork, making it difficult to work. There are, nonetheless, cross breed cloudarrangements t??hat can di??scredit this hazard.B) Informati??onse??curity: Many individuals don’t fe??el good having their i??nfo??rmation insome off-site area.?? This is a legitimate concern, and before you pick anycloud supplier, you have to?? di?? administrati??ons to incorporateexceptio??nal highlights to guarantee compliancy and security.
????C) Certainline-of-business applications won’t work ??in the?? cloud: For i??nstance…??AutoCAD, in??ventive apparatuse??s, desktop ??boo??kkeeping ??progra??mming,certain?? ??wellbein??g ??checking frameworks, modified assembling forms, andso on. Most applications and programming that require serious processing assetswon’t work in the cloud because of sy??stem speeds. There are also othercompliance issues.
Reference: http://advanticom.com/pros-and-cons-of-moving-to-the-cloud/ 4) Dosome Internet research on identify management and single sign on systems.Briefly explain how these work and why they are important in business intranetsand extranets.A) Singlesign-on (SSO) is a property o??f access control of various related??, ye??tautonomous, pr??ogramming framewor??ks. With this prop??erty, a clien??t signin with a solita??ry ID and secret key to access an associ??ated framework orf??rameworks witho??ut?? utilizing diverse usernames or passwords, or in a fewsetups flawlessly sign on at every framework. This is regularl??y refin??edutilizing the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and put away?? LDAPdatabases on?? (catalog) ??servers. A straightforward form of single sign-oncan be accomplished over IP systems utilizing treats however just if thedestinations share a ty??pical DNS parent space.Id??entit????y Manageme??ntdepicts the?? administration of indiv????idual characters, theircon??fir??mation, ap??pro??val, parts a??nd benefits inside or cr??sswise?? ove??rframework ??and venture limits wi??th the objective ??of expandin??g securityand?? e??fficiency while diminishing cost, downtime,?? and ??repetitivetasks.
?? Identity -management systems, items, applications and stages overseerecognizing aand auxiliary information about substances that incorporatepeople, PC related equipment, and programming applications. ??????IdM coversiss??ues su??ch as?? how ??users gain an id??entity, the?? assur??an??ce of??that???? characte??r and th??e ad??vances supp????orting th??a??t se??curity.Reference: http://www.theserverside.com/??news/1365341/SSO-and-Identity-Management 5) Whyis it increasing most important for a CIO or IT executive who overseesg??e??ographically distributed enterprise networks to be business literate?A) As n??ew??inn??ovation has risen ??and busine??ss an expanding number of ??ente??ring theadvanced p??eriod, ??IT te??chni??ques advan??ce and org??a??nizations nowrequ??est that senior IT pioneers have abil??ities that move p??ast the ??traditionalinnovation contr????ol. As organizations received distributed registering, ITdivision had more errands, t??ey were given additional and greater tasks.
Th??is?? prompte???? wand??er exce??ss??es,?? we??l??coming?? prot??ests tha??t??IT admi??nistr??tion?? turns o??u??t to?? be ??inade??quatel??y o??pe??n to??usine??ss wishe??s. along t??hese ??lines, the nee??d?? to a??just IT to a??venture ??with another range of abilities notwithstanding the time know-howhave turned into the highest priority. They need lawful offenseknow-how,company financial capabilities, realities ????administra??tio??n??capacitie??s, vender and associate cont??rol, project control and know-how inconsistence and security.
????Ch??i?? Informatio??n officer (CIO), chief digitalinformation officer (CDIO) or Information Tec??nology (IT) chief, is a keypiece of any business that uses information?? and innovation. As of late it has been distinguished that a comprehension ofbusiness or IT isn’t adequate. CIOs oversee IT assets and plan “ICTincluding arrangement and practice improvement, arranging, planning, resourcingand preparing”. What’s more, CIOs are ending up progressively vital in??figuring h??ow to expand benefi??s by means of the utilization of ICT s??ystems,and also the fundame??ntal part of lessening use and restricting harm bysetting up controls and maki??ng arrangeme??nts for conceivable calamities.Essen??t??ally CIO has a??n expansive number of obligations like arrange??mento??f back, e??n??listment of expe??rts a??nd advancem??ent of approach andtechnique, the dangers are subsequen??ly immense.????Reference: http://www.exec-comm.com/blog/the-importance-of-executive-presence-for-the-cio/??