1. yet to be agreed in terms of

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Last updated: May 25, 2019

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     India announced a soft credit lineof $1 billion for infrastructure, irrigation and energy projects. Modi took upthe work of starting the 5,600 MW Pancheshwar project, which remained stalledfor 18 years after the agreement1.He assured the Nepali side that India will not want Nepal’s electricity orpower for free: “We will buy it, and that alone will change the face of Nepal…We will provide power to you now, but 10 years hence, you will remove ourdarkness,” he said, hinting India will move fast on the implementation ofprojects now. PM Modiannounced his ‘HIT’ formula—highways, i-ways, transways.Deliberations and discussions are presently being carried out to agree upon themajor issues such as the sharing of water and its benefits between Nepal andIndia and putting a value to the benefits in the project’s Detailed ProjectReport (DPR)2.Energy from the project that is to be developed jointly by India and Nepal willbe divided equally as per bilateral treaties. However, the sharing of thebenefits and water from the reservoir, like irrigation and flood control, areyet to be agreed in terms of price and quantity. PM Modi announced and stressed4C’s formula that is Cooperation, Connectivity, Culture and Constitution.

Onrequest of Nepal Government during SAARC summit, PM Modi provided special carsto Nepal for use of Heads of the Participating member states. PM Modi is also the first foreignleader to have addressed Nepal’s parliament. 2.     Bangladesh:WithBangladesh, India has ratified the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement,putting an end to the dispute over the boundary by passing legislation inIndian parliament. In addition to economic engagement, Bangladesh, in its turn,has been cooperating extensively with India on counter-terrorism.  Modi’s visit to Bangladesh with WestBengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee by his side was marked by the settlementand ratification of the 41-year-old boundary dispute (Land Boundary Agreement)and announcement of a fresh line of credit of $2 billion to the neighbouring country3.In January 2016, India entered a preliminary agreement to supply 100 MW ofelectricity daily to Bangladesh from the gas-based ONGC Tripura Power Company     (OTPC)4.The Bangladesh Government responded by initiating the process to allow accessto the Chittagong port.

It also has plans to implement the proposed railconnectivity between Agartala and Akhaura junction in Bangladesh. Bangladeshhas granted India road transit facility through its territories to Agartalaunder the Bhutan-Bangladesh-India-Nepal (BBIN) motor vehicles agreement. India is also pushingfor the BBIN (Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal) initiative, which will enhancecooperation in water resources management, connectivity of power grids,multi-modal transport, & freight and trade infrastructure. The fourcountries recently signed a motor vehicle agreement, which will facilitate the crossborder movement of goods and people, which is the first step towardsintegrating the region5.

 3.     Sri Lanka:PMModi is the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Sri Lanka in almost 28years after Rajiv Gandhi to tour to the nation. He emphasized on the sharedstrong historic and cultural links that exist between the two nations.

It wasclear that he was interested in making a fresh start with Sri Lanka as thatcountry emerges from a troubled and turbulent phase.  4.     Maldives:Maldivesentered into a defense cooperation action plan in April 2016.6 Modistressed that Maldives’ stability and security is directly linked to the nationalinterests of India and assured the island of support required to strengthendemocratic institutions.

The countries also signed many pacts in the field oftourism, taxation, conservation, and SAARC satellite. 5.     China:Indiahas an uneasy relationship with China.

China is India’s largest tradingpartner. The trade balance is heavily in favour of China. The territorialdispute remains unsolved and it periodically boils over into incidents offriction.

In the Indian perception, China is the primary threat to its security.PM Modi has visited China on May 2015 and September 2016 to smoothen therelations between two countries7. 6.     Pakistan: After coming to power PM Modi tried hard to rebuild cordialrelations with Pakistan and his surprise stopover in Lahore at Christmas onDecember, 25-2015, on his way back from an official trip to Afghanistanreflected his sense of personal diplomacy8.

Butwithin the short span of his tenure as Prime Minister, Indo-Pak relations havetaken many twists and turns.    However,barely a week after the Prime Minister’s visit to Pakistan and the announcementof a resumption of bilateral talks, an Indian Air Force base in Pathankot wasattacked. Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), a militant organization based in Pakistan,was suspected to have designed the attack. In view of the loss of lives ofIndian soldiers in the attack the Indian government put forth a strong stanceand pressed for stern action against the terrorists as a condition precedent forany future comprehensive talks with Pakistan.

Surgical strike by India todestroy terrorist camps along the borders of India spread a clear message thatIndia shall not compromise with its national security and sovereignty.      8.    Mayanmar: Myanmar shares a long landborder of over 1600 Km with India as well as a maritime boundary in the Bay ofBengal. Four North-Eastern States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur andMizoram share international boundary with Myanmar9.Both countries share a heritage of religious, linguistic and ethnic ties.

Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj, during her visit to Myanmar in August2014, pointed to Buddhism as an important link between the countries that mayfoster people-to-people contacts and serve as a foundation for generallyimproved relations. The pragmatic foreign policy doctrine of India’s new PrimeMinister, Narendra Modi, is based on an “enlightened national interest” andplaces its focus squarely on India’s immediate neighbourhood, includingMyanmar.

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