2.2 that, according to Katalinic et al., (2006),

Topic: HealthAutism
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Last updated: August 24, 2019

2.2 FREE RADICALS AND REACTIVE OXYGENSPECIES (ROS)Free radicals are moleculesthat contain one or more unpaired electrons and interact with various tissuecomponents. It is also generated by normal cellular aerobic metabolism andabnormal reactions by some diseases processes (Kehrer and Klotz, 2015).

 It has been identified to be responsible forvarious diseases due to its ability for tissue injuries and damages. There arevarious diseases or tissue injuries may get affected by free radical componentssuch as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory tract diseases, rheumatoidarthritis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer diseases and cancer. Whilereactive oxygen species (ROS) is generally a group of free radicals, reactivemolecules and ions that derived from oxygen. The example of ROS is superoxideanion (O2•?), hydroxyl radical (•OH),as well as nonradical molecules like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).At high concentrations of ROS are extremely harmful to the organism.

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Theoxidative stress in the cell can occur when the level of ROS exceeds thedefense mechanism. This situation can cause peroxidation of lipids oxidation ofproteins, damage to nucleic acids, enzyme inhibition and activation ofapoptosis (Sharma et al., 2012). Therefore,the presence and action of antioxidants compounds can totally reduce and preventthe damage and injuries to the cell in the body. This antioxidant can playimportant role in controlling the formation of free radical that contains freeradical by neutralizing it with captured electron from other substance(Percival et al., 1996).

Besides that, according to Katalinic et al., (2006), balancingthe antioxidants and oxidants are important to prevent the formation ofoxidative stress in the body.  2.3 ACTIVITIES AND USAGE OF ANTIOXIDANTSNormally,cells permanently produce oxygen derivatives which are neutralized andeliminated due to the presence of natural defensive mechanisms such asenzymatic antioxidants and water or fat soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant. Theexamples of enzymatic antioxidants are glutathione peroxidases, superoxidedismutase, catalase while water or fat soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant are vitamins C and E, glutathione,selenium (Sta?czyk et al., 2005). Nowadays, natural antioxidants producedfrom plants have become well known and a trend in our community compared tosynthetic antioxidant due to its side effects such as toxicity andcarcinogenicity. Besides that, continuous usage of synthetic antioxidant cancause health hazard to human (Dinesh et al.

, 2000).  Main sources of naturally occurringantioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables (Shekhar and Anju, 2014).  Currently, there is higher interest amongresearchers of therapeutically potential medicinal plants in reducing oxidativestress-induced injury. These antioxidants are known to inhibit the lipidperoxidation and to scavenge free radicals in the body (Sudarajan et al.

, 2006).There are many methods in the analysisthe antioxidant capacity in foods and plants. The rapid, simple and inexpensivemethod of free radicals, free radical, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) iswidely used to measure the antioxidant capacity in the medicinal plant by testingthe ability of compound that act as free radical scavengers (Kirtikar and Basu,2006).  2.4 MEDICINAL VALUE OF Piper sarmentosum AND PipernigrumThe leaves of Piper sarmentosum are consumed raw as “ulam”and we also used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases (Chan& Wong, 2014). P.

sarmentosumcontains pharmacological properties such as anti-cancer, hypoglycemic,anti-tuberculosis, antioxidant and antimalarial (Rahman et al., 2016). Not onlythat, Zainudin et al., (2015) reported that Kadok contains antioxidant propertiesthat cause a significant reduction in oxidative stress which leads to the reductionof blood pressure and hypertension. P.

sarmentosum plants are also rich with antioxidant compound such as flavonoid,vitamin E, carotenoids, xanthophylls, tannins and phenolics. Furthermore, it isable to relieve a headaches, cough, asthma and rheumatism. Besides that, thisplant contains many phytochemicals constituents such as alkaloid, amide,flavonoids and pyrones (Rahman et al., 2016). Onthe other hand, Piper nigrum or blackpepper is also one of the valuable and well-known herbal plants that can givemany benefits to  human being. It isknown as the “King of Spices” among various spices.

It is also the most famousand one of the commonly used spices throughout the world. There are many usagesof this plant such as medicinal agent, preservative, flavouring and inperfumery. Besides that, due to its active components such as piperine made itplay an important role in the healthcare system of the world population.

Thetraditional system of medicine like Ayurvedic and Unani System of medicines arealso using this plant (Damanhouri and Ahmad, 2014). Almostall part of black pepper plant can be used in treating various diseases. Theroot and fruits of P. nigrum are usedto treat gout, palsy and respiratory tract diseases.

The fruits of this plantare bitter, hot and have a sharp taste which can be tonic to the liver andstomachic (Ganesh et al., 2014). Furthermore, black pepper has antimicrobialand ant-inflammatory properties. It can treat vertigo, chronic indigestion,colon toxins, obesity, sinusitis, congestion, fever, paralytic, arthritic disorderand also advised in diarrhea and cholera. According to Shanmugapriya et al.

,(2012), the leaves of P. nigrumcontain high antioxidant level which is good against damage by free radicals.  

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