3. Methodology In this chapter, it will be introduce some method and steps that apply to measure which can be used in this study.
In order to explore those research questions, content analysis will conduct in this study on KFC Malaysia official Facebook page and data will collect through qualitative analysis. Here to study crisis response strategies that KFC Malaysia apply and how public’s response of KFC Malaysia use Facebook to solve the crisis communication. The analysis of data include all posts made by KFC Malaysia within one month following the announcement of KFC staff fighting incident happened on February 6, 2012 until February 18, 2012 end the crisis. For study public’s response, will based on comments from public on every post in KFC Malaysia official Facebook page and code based on categories by SPSS and compare the result of inter-coder.3.
1 InstrumentStatistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) All data were analyzed by using SPSS. Based on Jeannette et al. (2017) defined that in SPSS frequencies will based on data to calculate for all coded categories in the study. In SPSS, well know can be used to calculate Krippendorff’s alpha (a) as the measure coding of public’s response towards KFC Malaysia use social media which is Facebook to handle and solve the crisis communication. SPSS will be more accurate in measure data analyzing, and also can explore the relationships between public’s responses to research questions. SPSS code the data of public’s comments on KFC Malaysia Facebook page and coded by different categories.Inter-coder Reliability After analyzed all data, inter-coder reliability is to compare with same class student to check the result whether reach a same conclusion as to match research questions.
Inter-coder use in this study in order to measures the frame of study to which the different assess from different coders or conclude try to assign exactly the same rating to each study. Same class student will be coders of inter-coder that research a same topic, it is because same topic as do same theory and frame in use social media handle crisis communication, in order to compare the conclusion to reach same result or percentage. In this study, <0.7 will be suitable and acceptable level of reliability for the index to be analyze. According to Kim (2009) noted that on the coding sheet, coders nominal types and category of crisis, stages of crisis, and the researchers' evaluations of the company, individuals and public's responses.3.2 DesignFor the purpose of this study, content analysis will be conduct.
On this study to answer research question one, will produced theory of crisis response which is SCCT to dominated KFC Malaysia official Facebook page posts. Corporate response strategies in crisis can code based on these eight crisis response strategies that suggested in SCCT. Examined all KFC Facebook posts and responses from the first post on February 7, 2012 to February 18, 2012. In total, 9 posts presented by KFC Malaysia. SCCT apply in this study in order to code what crisis response strategies that adopt by KFC Malaysia handle in this crisis.
According to Ward (2011), all content will be coding schemes exploit in these papers to identify and classify based on their intention and coding style. In this research, to answer research question two, will analyzed and measure those public’s comments on post that posting by KFC Malaysia in their official Facebook page. According to Formentin et al. (2017) stated that in order to more know and better understand about public’s responses on the company Facebook posts during the crisis period, comments from all posts were coded. However, Formentin et al. (2017) stated that comments from public for every posts in the period of crisis, with more than 20 comments but just only the first 20 comments will code. The first 20 comments will filter to see whether match the content of post, only will code for characteristics and categories including emotion, relevance, boycott, advisory or supportiveness. To measure those comments on KFC Malaysia posts, will be code in few categories to be more accurate.
3.2.1 VariablesVariables are categorized in terms of their relationship between each other, independent and dependent variables. In this study, have two variables and they are interrelated to each other.
Independent variables does not depend or change by any factors but dependent variables will be effect and change because of independent variables. In this study, crisis response strategies adopt by KFC Malaysia on Facebook is independent variables, where it effect dependent variables which is public’s response towards KFC Malaysia use Facebook in handle and solve the crisis. 3.2.2 Sampling In sampling, non-probability sampling does not attempt randomly to select the sample from data, for example data of population. In this study, data need to code based on public’s comments on KFC Malaysia Facebook posts.
Non-probability sampling will used to analyze those comments on KFC Malaysia Facebook posts for reliability check, can be treat as population. Comments will used selected by non-probability sampling because in sometimes or when some situation, comments will not be well defined and not so related to the content. Non-probability will be more convenient for coded and implement quickly than probability. 3.
3 ProcedureThe data of KFC Malaysia Facebook posts were collect from February 6, 2012 to February 18, 2012, the period time of the crisis when happened until solved the crisis. There have total 9 posts on KFC Malaysia Facebook page, and over 10k comments. Based on all those posts that posting by KFC Malaysia, will code by crisis response strategies, which is SCCT eight strategies that KFC Malaysia adopt to handle in this social media crisis communication. Inter-coder reliability will apply in this study in order to support and compare the conclusion to reach same result or exactly percentage. SPSS statistic software also will used to measure and categories comments for public’s response. 3.4 Data Collections On KFC Malaysia official Facebook page, in this study set key words to describe the crisis, like fighting, KFC staff, incident, I-City Shah Alam, KFC crisis and apologize for a search from February 6, 2012 to February 18, 2012, a period of 12 days when the crisis happened until solved the crisis which delivered total 9 posts.
All the posts are about from the beginning of the crisis that KFC staff fighting incident to the end and solved the crisis. As Roshan, Warren and Carr (2016) stated that can code data for those post that posting by company in official Facebook page in the period of crisis, when started the crisis, end of the crisis or no more messages the related to the crisis. Therefore, posts that posting by KFC Malaysia will automatically code by SCCT eight crisis response strategies. KFC fighting incident compare to traditional media more active on social media like Facebook. It is because on social media, public allow give and express their opinion about the crisis on KFC Malaysia Facebook page, it is a chance for KFC Malaysia to update to their consumers and also know that how public’s respond on this crisis. Through Facebook comments, can know that how public’s emotion and perception about this crisis, also can coding by categories. Additionally, Formentin et al. (2017) noted that the first 20 comments of every post were analyzed on Facebook posts for content and style.
The first 20 comments will be choose to measure immediate reactions and responses to information posted by KFC Malaysia during crisis. While some posts had more than 20 comments, will filter those comments and choose top 20 comments to analyze.3.5 Data analysisSituational crisis communication theory (SCCT), Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and inter-coder will used to analyze all data, which is posts and comments to answer research questions. KFC Facebook posts and comments from public from the first post on February 7, 2012 to February 18, 2012. In total, 9 posts presented by KFC Malaysia. Posts of KFC Malaysia will analyze and code by SCCT.
According to Ngai and Falkheimer (2017) stated that all crisis response strategies, which is SCCT eight strategies, the first is an attack on the accuser which is most defensive stage; denial is focus on the clarifications of the company policy to strengthen the weak attributes between the corporation on communication and the political or crisis; Excuse; Victimizations; Justification; Ingratiation; Corrective action and the last is Full apology. SCCT apply in this study in order to code what crisis response strategies that adopt by KFC Malaysia handle in this social media crisis. Inter-coder used to compare to result to reach same result or percentage with other student who research a same topic, it is because same topic as do same theory and frame in use social media handle crisis communication. In this study, <0.7 will be suitable and acceptable level of reliability for the index to be analyze. One coder create the coding sheet and explain to the other coder.
After that, discuss together about some issues regarding the variables and coding sheet before starting to code those comments on Facebook posts. For public’s response towards KFC Malaysia crisis, top 20 comments for every posts will filter to see whether match the content of post, and comments will be code in few categories, like boycott, for example “We don’t purchase at KFC Malaysia anymore, we boycott KFC Malaysia”, angry “We demand to see an apology video direct from the culprits themselves!!”, interrogate “We want the most finger licking chicken, not the fighting chicken! Do you understand KFC Malaysia?”. 3.
6 Data analysis method 3.6.1 Situational crisis communication theory (SCCT)SCCT can explore and analyze the crisis responses. The eight strategies could be used when attributions of crisis responsibility to company. Crisis response strategies involved words and actions, it is important to company adopt in when crisis happen.
SCCT has eight strategies for organizations to effectively apply and managing crisis, KFC Malaysia Facebook posts code by SCCT, based on result will know that KFC Malaysia whether effective to handle and solve the crisis on social media. 3.6.2 CodingBased on KFC Malaysia Facebook posts, code top 20 comments of every post, in order to have categories of public’s response towards KFC Malaysia use social media to solve the crisis communication.
Same class student who research a same topic then code comments from the data set that to establish inter-coder reliability. In inter-coder, which measure that using Krippendorff’s alpha (a), <0.7 as to be suitable acceptable level of reliability for the index to be analyze.