In recent years the gender composition of the work force has been changing. Looking at tables 1.
1, 1. 2 and 1. 3 what are the basic changes and how are they complicated when ethnicity and age are brought into consideration? In 1971, 26 million of the population, were in employment. In 2001, the number of people in work increased to 29. 4 million.
Although the number of people in empolyment has increased over the past thirty years, a more significant change, is the increase of women in employment, in relation to men.1971 illustrates only 10 million women worked, compared to 16 million men. The workforce totalled 26 million, but by 2001 the workforce increased to 29. 1 million.
Male employment had only increase by 200,000, but female representation increased by 2. 4 million. Table 1. 1 suggests, this trend will continue, with females closing down the gap between male and female employment. Table1. 2 focuses on the economic activity rate by ethnic group, gender and age. The table shows that the gap between male and females between the ages of 16 – 64 varies, depending on your ethnic group.
Although in table 1. 1, results showed the closing gap between males and female in employment, this would only apply to; White, Black Caribbean, Black Africans and Chinese ethnic groups. If you compare the amount of Indian, Pakisatni and Bangladeshi males in employment, against the same ethnic groups, representing female employment, the results show that these ethinic groups have a much wider gap in gender, when relating to employment, i. e. Only 22% of Bangladeshis women work. Finally table 1.3 illustrates the effect of age on gender differences.
The results illustrated in the graphs show a reducing gap between males and females from 1971 to 2001 throughout all the different age categories. In the white ethnic group, table 2 highlights the division between managerial responsibilities. White males make up 23% compared to white females making up only 14%. There is a much smaller division for jobs as foreman and supervisors, with the division totalling only 1%. The black ethnic group shows their workforce is muchmore even in gender, with men taking up 13% of managerial positions and women 12%.
Taking these results we can conclude that female managers and foremen fall to a minority in these areas, compared to men. These figures also show that gender differences in the white ethnic group, are much more uneven compared to the other ethnic groups. White male managers form a 23% of this occupational area, compared to other ethnic counterparts. Black males only form 13% and Indian males slightly more at 17%.White females make up 14 % of managerial positions, but the split between females and their ethnic groups in much smaller.
Black women account for 14% and Indian females for 10%. The foreman occupation is much more evenly split between the ethnic groups and gender. Analysing these results, it could be concluded that it’s far more likley to obtain a manager position, when being of white ethnicity and male in sex.
In other occupational areas, inequallities in gender or race tend not to occur or appear as significant.