Sigmund Freud tried to find a theory to explain all human behaviour. He said that there are three parts to the brain. There is the Conscious, pre-conscious and the unconscious. The mind has three parts. These are called the id, ego and superego. He also said that the stages of psychosexual development were important. The defence mechanisms were also mentioned.
Defence mechanisms are ways to unconsciously protect ourselves from unpleasant ideas. One way is repression. This is pushing down unwanted ideas into the unconscious mind. There is regression, which is going back to an earlier stage.Displacement is another example, which is diverting energy into another activity, and there is sublimation, which is getting rid of stress or anger by doing sport of digging the garden for example. Behaviorism (Part 1) Ivan Pavlov invented the learning theory of classical conditioning.
This is learning through association. An example of this is Pavlov’s dog experiment. This is where a dog was put into a cubicle. A sound was made when food was given. This made the dog salivate.
From then on when that same sound was made the dog still salivated whether or not food was present or not present!Behaviorism (Part 2) Burrhus Frederick Skinner studied mainly non-reflexive or voluntary behaviour. He invented Operant conditioning. This is learning through reinforcement (rewards) and punishment. Skinner devised the three-stage method, effective on both animals and humans. Firstly a goal is defined, then the start is defined and then when the behaviour is good the animal or human is reinforced with something it wants such as an object or praise. Behaviorism (Part 3) Julian Rotter invented the term social learning theory (SLT) when studying social interactions in laboratory conditions.This is learning through observation, imitation and identification.
This says that we can learn through simply observing others and seeing the consequences of their actions, such as when children imitate their parents or peers. Cognitive Wolfgang Ki?? hler provided a fourth major learning theory. This was called Insight learning theory (or ‘cognitive learning’). An example of this is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). This encourages the client to perceive and evaluate stressful situations accurately, and to improve coping skills and techniques by training and practice.Humanistic The main humanistic ideas are Focus on the individual, Emphasis on conscious experience and Everything to do with the wholeness of human nature.
Carl Rogers developed a form of psychotherapy called person centered therapy (PCT). This was a change from psychoanalytic and the behaviourist approaches and conventional medicine. This is where the client is responsible for improving his or her life. Biopsychological Biopsychology seeks to describe and explain behaviour in terms of nerves and chemicals in the body, especially the brain.
Roger Sperry found that two hemispheres of the brain seemed to work independently if the corpus callosum joining them was cut. This was later tried on humans who suffered from epilepsy. Social and Cultural This is where behaviour is influenced by the environment in the broadest sense – through the family, social class, caste, tribe, religion, country and culture in general. Socialisation is an example of this.
It is the process of learning the ‘norms’ or rules of society. An example of this is conforming such as taking drugs in a group just to fit in as everyone else is doing it when you do not want to.