Adolescence reality. Coopersmith (1967) define it as set

Topic: BusinessComparative Analysis
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Last updated: September 3, 2019

Adolescence is the transition period between childhood to adulthood wherein physical and psychological developments occur. The search for identity generally occur, in turn, constant fluctuations in self-esteem has been observed in this period. Self-esteem affects us in many facets of our lives.  It has been a topic of researches for several decades and has been determined its correlation with and causality to many factors.  It has found its place in many researches because of its wide and far impact. Self-esteem is a general evaluation of ones’ personal worth in relation to their social environment.

It is perception rather than reality. Coopersmith (1967) define it as set of attitudes and beliefs that a person brings with them as they go out to face the world and respond according to expectations of success, acceptance and personal strength. It is the basic human need to be “loveworthy” (Mruk,1999). Self-esteem have been correlated with many variables including academic, clinical, sociological, anthropological, psychological. Therefore, researchers find the need to establish theories on the functions of self-esteem.

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There are three widely accepted theories on the function of self-esteem: a. Self-determination theory, b. Terror management theory, and c. Sociometer theory. Self-determination theory states that true high SE is reported when the psychological needs — relatedness, competency and autonomy are in balance.  Personal growth and well-being is enhanced when social conditions provide support to meet these basic needs. Terror management theory proposes that internalization of cultural values is also key in which SE is construction derived from integrating contingencies valued by society into one’s ‘worldview’.

Sociometer theory suggests that being able to determine others’ reactions affecting status is used in creating and maintaining meaningful relationships.  To be excluded from worthwhile relationships negatively affects SE.

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