The individualisticapproach to the program prevents it from being so.
A critical examination revealsthat 59% of the poor were excluded from PBF and 70% from Opportunidades, while49% of the beneficiaries of PBF and 36% of Opportunidades were found to benon-poor. Targeting issues connected with CCTs lead to under-coverage andinclusions of the non-poor while administrative costs reach up to 30% of thetransfer (Saad-Filho, 2014). This passive approach brings poor into the marketas buyers and plays no role in changing the structures of poverty.Socio-economic and political injustices on the basis of religion or caste thatenable market exclusion need to be addressed before the upward trajectory ofthe poor can be materialized and made sustainable.
This is only possible wherepoverty is recognized as multidimensional and efforts to reduce it includeaspects of social justice and universal protection rather than simply injectingminimum resources at the household level (Deavearux and McGreggor, 2014).