Characteristics Fear about inescapable/embarrassing situations (at least 2)Public transportationOpen spacesEnclosed spacesStanding in line/crowdBeing outside of homeOnset in childhood Early treatment IMPORTANT UNTREATED decreased standard of living, depressing, substance abuse, suicideanxiety disorderMany comorbidities Economic issues with patients CASE STUDYPatient had high heart rates sweating More panic symptoms within a crowd Treated with group therapy Symptoms became manageable within seven visits Causes Prefrontal hypoactivation–possibly just a characteristic instead of a cause effects cog.
ControlemotionsGenetics or health conditions StressTrauma in childhood, adulthood, etc. TreatmentGroup therapy CBTeffective (? no)Pharmacotherapy (cocktail of meds)effective (? no) iTBS NEUROSTIMULATION (research)OUTCOME: brain activity normalized agoraphobia was weakened by VERUM group iTBSHistory Was seen as a form of panic disorderBecame independent disorder–no longer associated with PD Many issues with list of 5 placesInescapable places (movies, theatres, auditoriums, etc.) fit under only ONE categoryMany people with agoraphobia do not meet criteria Narrowing of definition may also be a good thing–more specifically diagnoses patient instead of one umbrella termCitationsBatinic, B, et al. “Comorbidity and Suicidality in Patients Diagnosed with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia and Major Depression.” Psychiatria Danubina.
, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 June 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.
nih.gov/pubmed/28636577.Cornacchio, Danielle, et al. “Clinical Consequences of the Revised DSM-5 Definition of Agoraphobia in Treatment-Seeking Anxious Youth.
” Depression and Anxiety, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 4 Apr. 2015, www.
Deppermann, Sasika, et al. “Neurobiological and Clinical Effects of FNIRS-Controlled RTMS in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy.” Elsevier, 22 Sept. 2017, doi:10.1016/j.nicl.
2017.09.013. eCollection 2017.