– ex. Jane Eyre: she gains her voice in the end (“I married him”)> text declares action > inside the story of Bronte’s novel AND on the level of the telling of this novel- ex: MRS Dollaway: merger of diegetic and extra-diegetic level: writing in the sky and writing on the page
inside the diegesis, outside the hypodiegetic level
narrator (outside the diegesis of the narrated story) tells a story where he was involved
narrator (outside the diegesis of the narrated story); he is/was not part of the story he narrates
narrator telling his life (Bildungsroman > Crusoe)
– mimesis: art in terms of imitating reality; a mimetic texts imitates reality (ex. imitating a bed by lighting it up)• free direct discourse, direct discourse- diegesis: act of storytelling (referring to the world of the story) (ex. telling a story about the bed); language cannot really imitate actions, but it can get very close• diegetic summary
o Unreliability of narrators
– personal involvement (narrator is interested in telling a story in a certain way)- limited knowledge (ex.
child narrator)- problematic value scheme (ex. narrator who’s a criminal)
more showing than telling (no comment or judgement)
o Emma: irony in characterizing the heroine; indirect descriptions (close to reader)
literary text-unfolding a space in which one encounters multiple voices – analogy between language and literature- language in different times, cultures and ideological positions > not one complete whole > these “languages” intersect each other
Speech representation (Rimmon-Kenan)
Representation of speech instead of immitation of actions- Diegesis – diegetic summary (referring to a speech act without content; only words)- Mimesis – free direct discourse (monologue; no structuring direct discourse (with quotation marks; “he says…”- Free indirect discourse (FID) – mixture of both free direct and direct- Direct discourse
free inderict discourse
“She [Emma] would notice her [Emma’s friend Harriet]; she would improve her; she would detach her from her bad acquaintance, and introduce her into good society; she would form her opinions and her manners. It would be an interesting and certainly a very kind undertaking; highly becoming her own situation in life, her leisure, and powers. (24 )”- indirect: (she thought) she would improve her ¨> no reporting verb, but keeing of the ast change and pronoun change- Direct: i will improve her- Two voices in one voice
The House Made of Dawn”He was alone and running on.
All of his being was concentrated in the sheer motion of running on, […] and he could see at last without having time to think.
He could see the canyon and the mountains and the sky. He could see the rain and the river and the fields beyond. He could see the dark hills at dawn. He was running, and under his breath he began to sing. There was no sound, and he had no voice; he had only the words of a song.
And he went running on the rise of the song. House made of pollen, house made of dawn. Qtsedaba.
Begins and ends with a word that westerns dont understandTone: detachement, peacefulnessQuietness: counterpoint to the drama in the novel ¨> eternity (sometimes the novel goes back to the time before humans)Setting is not clear > beginning already gives us the ending > circular structure (reverse structure of the beginning)Oral tradition is incorporated in the novelStories, songs, etc.Novel is like a song or a chantThe novel ends with an emphasise on singingSence of healing (tone of the end)Statement: he has no voice (figurative voice > the voice of a song); Abels entire body sings the songWe can’t here the voice directly; makes it even more powerful
plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousness, a genuine polyphony of fully valid voices is in fact the characteristic of Dostovyevsky’s novels (plurality of consciousnesses with equal right and each with its own world)example: Mrs Dollaway: various characters; rhetorical language (> polyphony is held together by a narratorial voice)