Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Geneva Edwards
Last updated: July 18, 2019
Introduction Language is the first element which used by two or morethan two people to communicate each other around the world. Communication is aprocess of sending and receiving messages or to share feelings, ideas,information, knowledges, etc by human using of any languages. There are twotypes of communication to exchange information. They are Verbal Communicationand Non-verbal Communication. Peopleuse verbal communication to interact with others, but, it should also be known that non-verbalcommunication also helps to build up communication and make a connection. Leathers(1992) stated that non-verbal actions are more effective and precise thanverbalization. Moreover, non-verbal cues make the communication process easywhere sometimes verbal communication also cannot help to express language. Abercrombie(1968:55) states what is generally taken for granted: “We speak with our vocalorgans, but we converse with our entire bodies”.
It means that facialexpressions and gestures contribute to the overall meaning of a statement wesaid.Non-verbal communication is usually used forchildren/students with special needed. Sometimes they use facial expression orgesture to send their messages. As we know, not only special learners but alsoevery child can be benefited by the use of teacher’s non-verbal communication.This action helps to reach any kind of language and makes them understand themeaning easily.As an English Education student, our goals is to teachlanguage to the student and tell them how to use language to communicate withother people effectively.
Teachers should pay attention to non verbalcommunication in the class. Non verbal language will help teachers tocommunicate with their students in the target language and to control thestudent’s knowledge and discipline in the class. It helps teachers to managestudent’s behavior too. This way will help both the teachers and students toexchange information and knowledges.
In fact, nonverbal communication is an important part of our dailycommunication, and it is an indispensable part of language teaching. B. Literature ReviewDefinition of CommunicationCommunication, in general, is the process ofsending and receiving messages that enable humans to share knowledge,attitudes, and emotions.
Aristotle defined communication as the use ofavailable resources to find a way to encourage others to express their ideas and opinions. The aim ofcommunication is to exchange information betweenone and others. According to Istifci (2011) Communication is “the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information byspeech, writing, or signs”.
However, Negi (2009) said that communication is anon-going process of sending and receiving messages that let people share theirideas, feelings, attitudes, emotions in their daily life. As we know,communication is separated into two ways, verbal communication and non verbalcommunication. Non Verbal CommunicationNon verbalcommunication is known as a process of delivering and receiving information byhuman without words. It is usually communication using gestures, facial expressions, body movements, postures, pitch ofvoice, and many more.
Therehave been various definitions of this term depending on the researcher’s theoreticalbackground and level of focus. Andersen (1999) stated that Non-verbalcommunication includes all communication other than language (as cited in,Gregersen, n.d., p.
52). Non verbalcommunication is universal in that many gestures and body movements areunderstood and used by a wide number of people, even if those people belong todifferent cultures. Agood example of these is Smile.Roger E. Axtell (1998, p118) calls it the “Ultimate Gesture”, because it isused everywhere and almost in every situation.According toGregersen(n.d), heexplained that not all the non-verbal acts can be considered as communication. In somecase, astudent stretches up his or her arm up on their head due to his or hertiredness; in that case,it will not be considered as any sort of communication.
On the other side, ifthe same act is presented in a classroom, it will symbolize that the studentwants to raise questions or give answer (p.53). Therefore, it can be said thatnot all non verbal behaviors lead to communication (Gregersen, n.d.
, p.53). Non VerbalCommunication: Eye ContactThe aspect of non verbalcommunication is the use of the eyes to convey messages orinformation.For both the teacher and the learner, the eyes are a powerful tool around theteaching and learning environment. Eye contact produces a powerful,subconscious sense of connection that extends even to drawn or photographedeyes.
Because it is connected with human’searliest survival patterns. Teacherscan use numerous strategies to manage their classroom and offer students theopportunity to build their knowledge and also to prevent misbehavior inclassroom. Students are more likely to be emotionally and intellectuallyinvested in the classes in which they have positive relationships with theirteachers. Therefore, teachers who build positive relationships by eye contactwith their students may enjoy the following benefits.According toWainwright (1999) person makes eye contact when: · Seeking information, · Shows attention and interest, · Engages and controls interactions, · Dominates, threatens, and influences others; · Gives feedback on speaking · Poses an attitude.Sometimes, too much eye contactis instinctively felt to be rude, hostile and condescending (Chen, 2005). Itmay also be perceived as a deliberate intent to dominate, intimidate, belittle,or make “the other” feel at a disadvantage.
Many learners are likely to find thisuncomfortable and consequently avert their own eyes and lose concentration. We reduce eye contactwhen we are talking about something shameful or embarrassing, when we are sador depressed, and when we are accessing internal thoughts or emotions. But, itis not always correct in language learning. Longer eye contact is associatedwith trust or maybegood feelings (Huang, 2006). Teacher increases eye contact when he wants toadmire or confirm students in the classroom. Non VerbalCommunication: Facial ExpressionFace is thecomplex part of the human body. Through the face expression, people communicateperfectly in silent. Using facial expression, much of the informations arecarried out by the mouth and the eyebrows.
Haller and Rambaud (1980)classified facialexpressions into five basic categories. They are:· Thebasic expressions Primary expressions which used by all humans. These can be eitherpositive expressions, like tenderness, frankness, and curiosity; negativeexpressions like anger, terror, and disgust; or mixed expressions such as submission,impatience, and astonishment.
· Secondaryexpressions Facial expression which only produced by adults. They are subdivided intonegative expressions such as admiration, relief, and bravery. · Reinforcingexpressions Force the meaning of what the person’s expressed inverbal.Examples of these are familiarity, humility, reflections. · Relativeexpressions Relating different expressions and giving a distinctcharacteristic like helplessness, remembrance, satiety, etc. · Complementaryexpressions It used in very particular situations. function in very particular situations. It makesthem difficult to interpret.
Examples are boredom. C. Case DiscussionFacial ExpressionFacial expression of the teachers is a way to expressteacher’s feeling. From the facial expression, the student learns how theteacher feels (emotionally) when teaching, whether the teacher is teaching withfeelings of joy, happiness, feelings of anger, etc. The expression of theteacher’s face has a certain meaning for students who then responded by thestudents. Based on my experience as a student, if the teacher shows ‘sumringah’face or smile face, it means that she or he as a happy teacher. The studentwill know that the teacher has a good mood to teach them.
So, their enthusiasmin learning maybe will increase.Paul Ekman and Friesen (http:// www.paulekman.com) said that human facialexpression, expressing 6 major human emotions which used to show mood of theperson when they feel fear, disgust, anger, happy, sad, and surprise. Based onPaul Ekman and Friesen study, facial expression of the teacher who shows’sumringah’ face is can be expression of happy emotions. The angry expressionand emotional expression of teachers, which makes student thinks that theteacher is cruel can be said to be an emotional expression of anger accordingto the two experts.
While the emotional expression of teachers which maybe hasa lot of problem in their life and badmood teachers can not be explained withthe expert’s findings. So the expression of emotion of disgust, fear, shock andsadness can not be determined from the findings of this study.A teacher’s facial expression without a smile isunpopular with the student because it creates a variety of unpleasant feelingssuch as fear, anger, insecure, under pressure, and discomfort. In thissituation, many of student’s feedback to the teacher is silent. This silentresponse means students do not want to ask, be passive in learning activities.Another action of silence is not to ask the teacher even if the student doesnot understand the material which explained by the teacher. Students choose toask their friends who are considered more intelligent or learn with privatetutor. Otherwise, the smiling facial expressions used by theteacher cause feel happy (enjoy) or boost the spirit to follow the lessonbecause it shows the feeling of happy teachers in doing learning activities.
This pleasure encourages students to want to ask the teacher, can concentrateon the lessons and enthusiasm in learning activities. Eye ContactFor me, teacher’s eye contact has a lot of meaning. Themeaning of eye contact from the teacher are:· Teachers who teach with bright eyes and look to studentsshow pleasure with students; · Teachers who do not have eye contact means not payingattention to students· Teacher who continually sees the student means watchingthe students· Teachers are more attentive to higher performing studentsor favoritism teachers. Related to Wainright’s opinion, the teacher’s goal ofmaking eye contact with the students are:· The teacher makes interaction· The teacher shows attention and interest to the student· The teacher is not interested or not interested in thestudents· Teachers threaten students · The teacher poses an attitude (angry, dismissive). D. Conclusionü Teachers usevarious types of non verbal communication behavior in the classroom, but thestudents give the main attention to the facial expression and eye contact.ü Facialexpression of teachers is a way of emotional expression of teachers, while eyecontact plays a role in interpersonal relationships between teachers andstudents. Smiling facial expressions are encouraged by students that teachersteach with pleasure or enjoy and this makes students happy.
This situationmakes student enthusiasm in learning activities. The facial expression withoutsmile shows that the teacher is teaching with displeasure, or there is aproblem or being angry. Teachers who teach with these feelings create variousnegative feelings in students such as fear, depression or discomfort, laziness,feeling angry, or indifferent to the lesson. Eye contact with the teacher tostudents makes students feel cared for and heard so that students want tocommunicate with teachers. Teachers who are not in contact with students areinterpreted by the students that the teacher will not listen, no matter, or anyother negative feelings. ü The mean ofnon verbal communication behavior of teacher for student is preparing emotioncondition for student to do learning activity. Thus, the smiling facialexpressions and eye contact of the teacher provide a positive emotional statefor students to follow the learning and atmosphere that empowers students tolearn.