Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Teresa Matthews
Last updated: April 13, 2019
Abstract: Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is a crime where a computer and a networkare inextricably involved. The computer may be the target and have been used inthe commission of a crime. Aperson or a nation’s security and financial health may be threatened by cybercrime. Surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarrantedmass-surveillance, sextortion, child pornography, and child grooming are themajor issues. Whenconfidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise thereare also problems of privacy. Internationally,both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, includingespionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes.
Activity crossinginternational borders and involving the interests of at least one nation stateis sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. Introduction: Therapid development of computer connectivity and the role of the Internet in the emergenceof new e-commerce have compelled national governments and internationalagencies to address the need for regulation and safety on the ‘informationsuperhighways’. Theseastonishing tools have eroded the traditional barriers to communication,compressed our concepts of time and place, and changed the way a large part ofthe world does business. The convergence of computing and communications andthe exponential growth of digital technology have brought enormous benefits butwith these new benefits come greater risks both domestically and acrossborders. The new opportunities created in ‘cyberspace’ have enhanced the capacityof individual offenders and criminal networks that have emerged to exploit vulnerabilitiesin the ‘new’ economy. Therole of digital and information technologies in the generation of nationalwealth now means that the new risks associated with these changes requirecontinued attention on all fronts: national, regional and international. Whilethe process of ‘globalization’ continues to accelerate, a fully global responseto the problems of security in the digital age has yet to emerge and efforts tosecure cyberspace has been reactive rather than proactive. Developmentsin the trans-national policing of ‘cyberspace’ so essential in addressingcyber-crime are the focus of this paper and it outlines what the internationalcommunity has achieved so far.
Controlling crime involving digital technology andcomputer networks will also require a variety of new networks: networks betweenpolice and other agencies within government, networks between police andprivate institutions, and networks of police across national borders. Over thepast decade, considerable progress has been made within and between nations todevelop the capacity of police to respond to cybercrime and there is nowgrowing awareness amongst computer users of the need for basic securityon-line. BeCareful regarding the following contents: Cyberterrorism: Cyber terrorism in general can be defined as an act of terrorism committedthrough the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, asimple propaganda piece in the Internet that there will be bomb attacks duringthe holidays can be considered cyber terrorism. There are also hackingactivities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups withinnetworks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collectinginformation relevant for ruining peoples’ lives, robberies, blackmailing etc. Cyberextortion: Cyber-extortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computersystem is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or otherattacks by malicious hackers. Cyberwarfare: Cyber warfare involves the battle space use and targeting of computersand networks in warfare.
It involves both offensive and defensive operationspertaining to the threat of cyber attacks, espionage and sabotage. There hasbeen controversy over whether such operations can duly be called”war”. Nevertheless, nations have been developing their capabilitiesand engaged in cyber warfare either as an aggressor, defendant, or both. Criminality: Thekinds of criminality encompass the following (by no means exhaustive) list: •Interference with lawful use of a computer: cyber-vandalism and terrorism; denialof service; insertion of viruses, worms and other malicious code.•Dissemination of offensive materials: pornography/child pornography; on-line gaming/betting;racist content; treasonous or sacrilegious content.
• ThreateningCommunications: extortion; cyber-stalking.•Forgery/counterfeiting: ID theft; IP offences; software, CD, DVD piracy; copyrightbreaches etc.•Fraud: payment card fraud and e-funds transfer fraud; theft of Internet and telephoneservices; auction house and catalogue fraud; consumer fraud and direct sales(e.g. virtual ‘snake oils’); on-line securities fraud; and•Other: Illegal interception of communications; commercial/corporate espionage; communicationsin furtherance of criminal conspiracies; electronic money laundering. Globaland Regional Cooperation: Cyber-crimecreates an unprecedented need for concerted action from government andindustry, but also unprecedented challenges to effective international cooperation.
As noted it is not always clear where computer-related offences take place forthe purpose of determining criminal jurisdiction. An offence may produce victimsin many countries, as in cases involving virus attacks, copyright violations, andother 17 offences carried out globally through the Internet. This in turn may resultin cross border conflicts regarding which jurisdiction(s) should prosecute theoffender and how such prosecutions can be carried out to avoid inconvenience towitnesses, duplication of effort, and unnecessary competition among law enforcementofficials. Regionalcooperation in combating cyber-crime that include the following:•improve security awareness by providing adequate resources to secure transactionsand equip system operators and administrators;•improve coordination and collaboration by enabling systematic exchanges betweenthe private sector and law enforcement including joint operations;•take steps to ensure that technology does not outpace the ability of law enforcementto investigate and enact substantive and procedural laws adequate to cope withcurrent and anticipated manifestations of cyber-crime;•Broadly criminalize the conduct (including juvenile offenders) and focus on allviolators big and small;•strengthen international initiatives by updating existing treaties andagreements to recognize the existence, threats and transnational nature of hightech computer-related crimes and strive for legal harmonization; and• Thedevelopment of forensic computing skills by law enforcement and investigativepersonnel and mechanisms for operational cooperation between law enforcement agenciesfrom different countries, i.
e. 24/7 points of contact for investigators. Conclusion: CyberCrime which is occurring at all times in our daily life and around our lifecircumstances and even we are everyday being deceived by cyber crime. Thoughnot all people are victims to cyber crimes, they are still at risk. Crimes bycomputer vary, and they don’t always occur behind the computer, but they executedby computer. The hacker’s identity is ranged between 12 years young to 67yearsold.
The hacker could live three continents away from its victim, and theywouldn’t even know they were being hacked. Crimes done behind the computer arethe 21st century’s problem. With the technology increasing, criminals don’thave to rob banks, nor do they have to be outside in order to commit any crime.They have everything they need on their lap. Their weapons aren’t guns anymore;they attack with mouse cursors and passwords.