Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Andrew Sherman
Last updated: October 1, 2019
Abstract—Increasing energy demand and limitationsof fossil fuels, time to use the renewable resources for energy generation indomestic area. Renewable energy will not run out ever. Other sources of energyare finite and will someday be depleted. Renewable energy offers so manybenefits, from cleaning the air and reducing the pollution, to lowering pricesand taking us off the destructive boom-and-bust merry-go-round of fossil fuelprices .Energy consumption increases day by day as more appliances used intoday’s home. This paper proposes a design and development of a prototype based on solar powered solar power home automation system andcontrol through Raspberry Pi and to establish a platform that allowscommunication between the web-enabled mobile application of the user and theraspberry Pi situated at a remote location anywhere in the world.
In thissystem, it has two main sections : Energy generation and energy consumption. Energy generation isgenerated by using solar energy and utilized by different loads available in the home .With the intermittent nature of solar energy, the generated poweris used to meet the demand of the user at all weather conditions withoutrelying on grid.
Thus, this project proposes an efficient solar powered homeautomation system where the generated power is controlled and monitored by userto their power demand Keywords—PVpanel, Charge controller, Web Server, Raspberry Pi, Battery. Introduction (Renewable energy) Now a days Carbon emission of the planet earth has been increased in a large extent due toindustrialization, automation, modern life of the people. Use of non-renewableenergy sources is very much dependent for it, which has given rise to globalwarming due to depletion of ozone layer. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, suchas sunlight, wind, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services. According to CEA ,the all India installed Capacity as on31.10.
2017 are as follows :Energy from thermal power plant 219414.51 MWEnergy from Nuclear power plant 6780 MW Energy from Hydro power plant 44675.462 MW Energy from Renewable Energy Source 60157.66 MW I.
Ease of UseA. Grid SystemGrid-tied or grid connected solar is asolar electricity system without batteries. Both the national grid power smartsolar electricity system are hooked up to the house so that it always haveelectricity available at flick of the switch, even at night, or if it iscloudy. A solar electricity system of any size can be installed in the roof ofany residential building and will onlyever be billed if the power consumption is in excess of the generated amount.
Theelectricity grid acts as a 100% efficient and maintenance free battery whilealso providing unlimited ‘on demand’ energy. This is what makes grid connectedsolar electricity so attractive. It has all the benefits of being attached tothe electricity grid but with a portion of electricity bill never increasing in price.B. off -grid system Off-grid connected solar is a solarelectricity system with battery backup. During the day the sun shines andcharges the batteries as well as supplies power to home.
During the evening oron rainy days when the sun isn’t shining use the power stored in the batteries.when house is not connected to thenational grid hence the name off-grid. An off-grid solar system (off-the-grid,standalone) is the obvious alternative to one that is grid-tied. To ensureaccess to electricity at all times, off-grid solar systems require batterystorage and a backup generator (if you live off-the-grid). In advantage of off grid systems are1. No access to theutility grid.2. Become energyself-sufficient Application of Off grid: ü Increasein reliabilityü Constant voltage and frequencyü Decrease in power reservecapacityIncrease in diversity factor HOME AUTUMATION SYSTEM There are a wide variety oftechnology platforms, or protocols, on which a smart home can be built.
Home automation is being implementedinto more and more homes of older adults and people with disabilities in orderto maintain their independence and safety. These smart homes allow older adultsand people with disabilities to stay in their homes where they feelcomfortable, instead of moving to a costly health care facility. The transitionto a health care facility can cause a lot of anxiety and home automation caneither prevent or delay this anxiety. When, now a days, automation plays a crucial role in allwork places and living homes.
Presently automation techniques are implementedeither using microcontroller or computer. The Raspberry Pi is a single boardcomputer and it can be used to overcome these problems. Using these ports, wecan control the appliances with the sensors as well as interface the camera forsurveillance. Energy consumption increases dayby day as more appliances used in today’s home. Increasing energy demand andlimitations of fossil fuels, time to use the renewable resources for energygeneration in domestic area PROPOSEDSYSTEM This main objective of this paper is to ease the effort ofthe people in rural areas where they can control the electrical and electronicdevices using their own commands instead of using a remote control unit whichthey have to carry every time to control the devices.
In recentyears, wireless technologies have become very popular in both home and commercialnetworking applications Example:webpage Fig 3.1 Block Diagram The photovoltaic solar cell performance may be thus considered by an equivalent electric circuit model containing a diode. PV panel Equations: yyyyyy Figure 3.2 Simplifiedequivalent circuit of photovoltaic cell· ChargeController prevents overcharging and mayprotect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safetyrisk. · Chargecontrollers stop charging a battery when they exceed a set high voltage level,and re-enable charging when battery voltage drops back below that level· Current sensor is a device thatdetects and converts current toan easily measured output voltage, which is proportional to the current through the measured path· A voltage sensor canin fact determine, monitor and can measure the supply of voltage.
It can measure AC level or/and DCvoltage level. The input to the voltage sensor is the voltage itself and theoutput can be analog voltage signals, switches, audible signals, analog currentlevel, frequency or even frequency modulated outputs· ABoost converter is a switch mode DC to DC converter in which the output voltageis greater than the input voltage. It is also called as step up converter. Thename step up converter comes from the fact that analogous to step uptransformer the input voltage is stepped up to a level greater than the inputvoltage. By law of conservation of energy the input power has to be equal tooutput power (assuming no losses in the circuit). Input power (Pin)= output power (Pout) Since Vin < V out in a boost converter,it follows then that the output current is less than the input current. Therefore in boost converter Vin < V out and I in > I out · Boost converter are used inregulated DC power supplies and regenerative braking of DC motors· Low power boost converters areused in portable device applications · Boost converters are used inbattery powered applications where there is space constraint to stack morenumber of batteries in series to achieve higher voltage. · An actuator is a motor that convertsenergy into torque which then moves or controls a mechanism or a system intowhich it has been incorporated.
It can introduce motion as well as prevent it. Flow chart of our paper explainin the fig 3.3 Figure 3.3 Flow chartFigure 3.4 Hardware Setup WORKING Inour project we have aimed at electrifying the home appliances through solarenergy alone. The generated energy using solar power is fed to the loaddirectly.
The home appliances can be operated at the farther distance throughwireless communication, thereby saving the time and the work can be performedeven in our absence at home. Figure 4.1 Experimental setup To implementour idea we have selected washing machine and LED as a basic load.
Battery ischarged during morning and can be utilized at night even at morning when thepower production by panel is insufficient during cloudy weather. Power producedin panel and power utilized by load is monitored by controller through voltageand current sensor and intimate to the user through wireless/PC. Chargecontroller used to charge the battery at reliable condition. Boost convert stepup the DC power to required voltage to loads as we are using DC loads only.
Actuator turns ON the appliance when it get signal by controller. Our projectis completely independent of grid i.e., off gird WEBPAGEA web page is a document that is suitable for theWorld Wide Web and web browsers. A web browser displays a web page ona monitor or mobile device. That is what displays, but the term alsorefers to a computer file, usually written in HTML or comparable mark-uplanguage. The primary function of a web server is to store, process anddeliver web pages to clients.
The communication between client andserver takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Pagesdelivered are most frequently HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts inaddition to text content.A user agent,commonly a web browser or web crawler,initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource usingHTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. Theresource is typically a real file on the server’s secondarystorage, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on how theweb server is implemented. While the primary function is toserve content, a full implementation of HTTP also includes ways of receivingcontent from clients. This feature is used for submitting web forms,including uploading offiles.
Many generic web servers alsosupport server-side scripting using Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP, or other scripting languages. This means that thebehavior of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actualserver software remains unchanged. Usually, this function is used to generateHTML documents dynamically (“on-the-fly”) asopposed to returning staticdocuments.
The former is primarily used for retrieving or modifyinginformation from databases. The latter is typically much faster and moreeasily cached butcannot deliver dynamic content. Web servers are not only usedfor serving the World Wide Web. They can also be found embedded indevices such as printers, routers, webcams andserving only a local network.
The web server may then be usedas a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question.This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on theclient computer; since only a web browser is required (which now is includedwith most operating systems).Figure 4.1.1WebPage IP Address192.168.2.
10.This IP is used to control the appliance 26 via web server(Figure 4.8). It controls ON and OFF of the load according to command from theuser.The Home Server connects user to hardware via webpage i.e., router viaraspberry pi.
Home server commands router via Raspberry pi to control loads.Router receive signal and run accordingly to carry out specific operations.Andthis information like ON/OFF condition of load and power available can bemonitors and control through their mobile phone using WESERVER Fig 4.
1.2. Raspberry Pi Setup Fig 4.
1.3. Status of Home Appliances OUTPUT Thebelow output data was obtained (Table 4.1) on 23 October 2017 evening 4.45PMand a LED was electrified using solar power. Thus we can connect various loaddepend on power generated in the solar panel. Figure 4.
3.1PV panel output voltage Figure 4.3.2PV panel output current Figure 4.
3.3Boost converteroutput COMPONENTS OUTPUT VOLTAGE IN V CUTTENT IN A PV panel 17.76 5.8 Boost converter 24.19 5.51 LED Glows 100Watts FUTURESCOPE OF SOLAR POWERED HOME AUTOMATIONAND CONTROL Ø Proposedsystem provides reliable automation system to the user with the available powermore effectively.
Ø Proposedsystem will have great impact in rural areas for effective use of generatedpower. Ø Easilycontrolled through wireless even at far distance. Ø Independentof grid (off grid). Ø Forfurther improvement in our project combined with weather forecasting,whichisvery useful touser for schedule their work accordingly.CONCLUSION Inthis project, our main focus was the development of an independent energygeneration system (stand alone) for smart homes to control renewable (solar)energy and home automation makes this system more effective and controllinghome appliance according to the power available reduces the waste of solarenergy. Smart Home users use their mobile/laptop/tablet to access the homeappliances remotely, for that we have developed a web page to control andmonitor multiple domestic appliances andwe have been tested by LED and washingmachine, which is operated successfully.
The facilities are affordable and evendomestic user can provide themselves a micro generation system in their ownhomes and accordingly reduce natural gas/oil consumption by renewable energysources as sort of replacement energy. This project has given an example ofenergy saving model for urban areas and lightening model for rural areas andexpected to reduce home energy uses. Finally, it is absolutely an affordablesystem. It can be associated with various other options like energy monitoringsystems and weather monitoring system etc., soon REFERENCES 1. Nupur Sinha, Prof. Rupali , S.
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