Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Shannon Moss
Last updated: September 26, 2019
Abstract: Now a day manyresearchers are contributing their research in the field of Internet on Things(IoT), Since it is important and attractive technology.
IoT means communicationbetween Human to Device or any device to any device, anywhere in real time.This communication takes place with the help of different smart sensors whichare connected via internet. For short distance communication medium can beRFID, Z Wave, ZigBee, Bluetooth or wi-fi similarly for long distance GSM, 3G andLTE nothing but 4G.
Currently many organization started doing research on 5Gfor IoT applications.In this paper we review aconcept of few IoT applications, challenges and future scope of IoT in detail.Due to IoT, world becomes smart in every aspect so we have chosen the followingexamples like Smart Home, Smart Cities, Smart Agriculture and smart health.Keywords: WSN, IoT applications, Smart Home, Smart Cities,Smart Agriculture and smart health.Introduction:We can not imagine ourlife without internet because Internet has impact on our daily life, education,business, government, humanity and society 1. Clearly, the internet is one ofthe most important and powerful creations in allhuman history and now with the concept of internet of things, internet becomesmore favourable to have a smart life in every aspect 1. The future of modernwireless communication will overcome all the boundaries of traditional communication.
By the 2020 around 50 to 100 billion things will be connected 1-2. electronicallyby internet and developing the IoT technics testing and deploying products will be much close to implementing smartenvironment in future. Urban livingalready poses major challenges in our daily lives. Therefore, urgent solutionsare sought for viable living conditions and sustainable city development. Onthe other hand, the tremendous development of information and communicationstechnologies (ICT) and the power of the Internet may help us see the light atthe end of the tunnel 2 Figure 1: Introduction of IoT applicationsDifferent kinds ofsensors are connected into the network are having different language(heterogeneous environment) is one of the main challenge in IoT implementation145. similarly researches have to give more focus on size ofinfrastructure, large data handling, privacy/ security/ authentication of dataand power consumption by devices 35.framework for IoT proposesfollowing main issues: • The considerable numberof objects that fall within the scope of any IoT applications and their heterogeneity24.
• The integrallyunreliable nature of such objects and the guarantee of the end-to-end flexibility2. • The complexity associated with the hugequantities of usable objects in a smart city context to this end we haveidentified the need to support end users and application providers withtechniques that can automatically select by relevance all potential objectsdiscovered to be available for use and able to meet given application requirements1-2.To provide assistance forindividual residents, a smart home with electronic medical equipment andtelemedicine is one solution to the aging population, the cost of health careand the importance that individuals place on remaining independent and in theirown homes. In this field, the most challenging and well-researched issues arehuman activity monitoring, modelling and pattern recognition. There is a needfor online activity recognition techniques which can remotely track the statusor activities of the resident.
5The goal of this reviewpaper is to highlight the significant research area of IoT in form of casestudy. This paper is divided into following sections I Smart home, II smartcities, III smart agriculture, IV Smart health and finally V Summary and futurescope. I. SmartHome Figure2: Smart home IoT provides newdirection for the development of smart homes. SmartHome consist of automation, remotemonitoring and controlling of lighting, heating (such as smartthermostats), ventilation, air conditioning(HVAC)10, and security, as well as homeappliances such as washer/dryers, ovens orrefrigerators/freezers16.
Toimplement this infrastructure, we have to use smart sensors, switches centralgateway, controller mobile phone tablet of web interface 5. Figure 3: Smart Home using IoT Smart home system withIoT has three functions, data collection, reliable transmission and intelligentprocessing. The first part is the terminal node of the wireless communicationmodule 6. Its function is to collectinformation form appliances of kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom,mainly including home appliances, lighting equipment and security equipment,etc.
Therefore, comprehensive perception of family environment can be realizeddue to the data collection and the data interaction between sensors andwireless interface can be completed by the smart home gateway. for wirelesstransmission various protocols are available depending upon requirement one canchoose IEEE 802.15, CAN, I2C or Ethernet Interface. The wireless medium controlleris responsible for entire data routing.
The monitored data of the homeappliances, which are collected by wireless sensor network, are uploaded to avariety of terminal devices with WEB browsers in real-time. Meanwhile thecontrol data from the terminal devices can be received and transmitted 6. II. SmartCities Figure 4: Smart City IoTand Smart cities have attracted attention from academia and industry fordecades 5. “Asmart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses ICTs and other means toimprove quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and services andcompetitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and futuregenerations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects 6.
Smartcities demand requires careful planning in every stage, with support ofagreement from governments, citizens to implement the internet of thingstechnology in every aspect 1. With the help of IoT the IoT, cities can beimproved in many levels, by improving infrastructure, enhancing public transportationreducing traffic congestion, and keeping citizens safe, healthy and moreengaged in the community 2. Smartinfrastructure provides the foundation for all of the key themes related to asmart city, including smart people, smart mobility, smart economy, smart livingwhich consist of 1. Smartwater supply 2.
Smartwaste management3. Smarthealth 4. Smartenergy, 5. smartgovernance 6. smartenvironment. 7. SmarttransportThecore characteristic that underlies most of these components is that they areconnected and that they generate data, which may be used intelligently toensure the optimal use of resources and improve performance 7.
various kinds of devices listed below collectively form what is called’IoT’ that are critical in shaping future smart cities:Sensors that monitor the condition ofutilities such as electricity, water supply, load on surface transport andcapture real time data; Gateways that aggregate real-time data from thesesensors, perform local analytics and based on the result, take localised actionto prevent possible faults from further propagating into the networks 7 14. Communicationinfrastructure to connect these gateways to server cloud for transmitting dataon condition of local area 10.Server farms in a cloud based architecture that warehouses the data; performreal-time mining of such data to provide useful information to variousstakeholders through various channels such as mobile devices 5 9-10.These devices facilitate optimisationof service availability in the local area while confirming to the regional andmacro level constraints. This provides flexibility to local community in termsof prioritising the usage of scarce resources 7 14.The second important element is thedesign architecture of the different ICT components of smart city projects9-10 14. Though currently only a few firms dominate the ICT platform forsmart cities, it is required to build platforms with open gateways, applicationprogram interfaces, and open data sets so that expertise of numerous Indian ITfirms (both small and large) and the huge developer communities can be tappedfor building innovative applications and services.
The sensors, communication devices,and the transmission infrastructure provide huge opportunity for localelectronics manufacturing which has been identified as a focus area by thegovernment. The data so collected if made open, provide ammunition for big dataand analytics start-ups in the country 14.Third is measurement of smartness ofcities. The GSM Association—the industry body of mobile operators, launched thesmart cities index that consists of a set of market, social and economicindicators that track the performance of smart cities initiatives. TheICT/mobile indicators are a subset of a broader range of smart citiesindicators. Their use will allow the cities to quantify the impact ofICT/mobile on the city’s operations, its local economy and its citizens 714. Some leading smart city projects include IBM’s Smart Planet andSmart Cities, the Smart Dubai and Smart Amsterdam initiatives and Oraclegovernment, as examples 5. III.
Smart Agriculture Figure5: Smart Agriculture Inlast decade precision agriculture using wireless sensor network was popularconcept but now when all the world is moving toward IoT infrastructure,agriculture field is also switches to modern technology. InIndia 70% of population depends upon farming and one third nation’s capitalcomes from farming 8. Monitoringthe environmental factors is not the complete solution to increase the yield ofcrops. There are number of factors like attacks of insects and pets, attacks ofwild animal and birds that decrease the productivity to a greater extent 9.So, in order to provide solution to all such problems, it is necessary todevelop an integrated system which will take care of all factors affecting theproductivity in every stage 9.Thenewer scenario of decreasing water tables, drying up of rivers and tanks,unpredictable environment presents an urgent need of proper utilization ofwater. To cope up with this use of temperature and moisture sensor at suitablelocations for monitoring of crops 8.Systemdeveloped with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture can beprogrammed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity.
Thesystem can be powered by photovoltaic panels and can have a duplexcommunication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allows datainspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page 8-9. IV. Smart Health: Figure 6: Smart Healthcare IoTin healthcare is heterogenous computing, wirelessly communicating system ofsoftware and devices that connects patients and health provider to diagnose,monitor, track and store vital statistics and medical information 11.Various sensors are attached to human body to monitor andcontrol the following physical parameters like BP Monitor, Glucose Monitor, ECGMonitor, Pulse Oximeters, Sensors Embedded in Medical Equipment, DispensingSystems, Surgical Robots and Device Implants 12.
Servicesunder Smart Health:Smart Medicine: Providing a professional consultant to a patient inremote location or assisting a primary care.78% of emergency care could behandled efficiently using e Medicine11. Smart Monitoring: Collecting patient data using IoT and sending the datato a healthcare monitoring agency for remote testing and diagnosis. emonitoring services also include personalized alerts that inform a patient’shealthcare provider and relatives in times of emergency 11.Smart Surgery: Enabling the surgeon to perform an operation on apatient from a distant location using Robotics technology or video conferencing11.
RemoteMedical Education: Providing medicaleducation to healthcare service community and targeted groups from a geographicallydifferent location 11. Many peoples around the worlds are suffering from the badhealth because they don’t have ready access to effective smart healthmonitoring and may be a suspected to be as critical situation patients. Butwith small, powerful wireless solutions connected through the IoT are nowmaking possible for monitoring to come to these patients 1 11-13. Thesesolutions can be used to securely capture patient health data from a variety ofsensors, apply complex algorithms to analyze the data and then share it throughwireless connectivity with medical professionals who can make appropriate smarthealth recommendations 13 Summary and Futurescope:Insummary, one of the future is that IoT becomes a utility with increasedsophistication in sensing, actuation, communications, in creating knowledge,Controlling and monitoring from vast amounts of data. This will result inqualitatively different lifestyles from today.Forfuture developments it can be enhanced by developing this system for largescale. theinternet of things many smart applications becomes real in our life, whichenable us to reach and contact with everything in addition to facilities manyimportant aspects for human life such as smart healthcare, smart homes, smart energy,smart cities and smart environments.
Acknowledgement We express our sincere thankfulness to my ProjectGuide Dr R.M. Vani for her valuable guidance to this paper. Without her help itwould be a tough job for me to accomplish this task. I am thankful for herconsistent guidance, encouragement and motivation throughout the period ofwork.
References:1Zeinab Kamal Aldein Mohammeda, Elmustafa Sayed Ali Ahmedb, “Internet of ThingsApplications, Challenges and Related Future Technologies”, EISSN 2392-2192 WSN67(2) (2017) 126-1482Panagiotis Vlacheas, Raffaele Giaffreda, Vera Stavroulaki, Dimitris Kelaidonis,Vassilis Foteinos, George Poulios, and Panagiotis Demestichas, Andrey Somov,and Abdur Rahim Biswas, “Enabling Smart Cities through a Cognitive ManagementFramework for the Internet of Things”, IEEE Communications Magazine June 2013, pp 102-111.3John A. Stankovic,” Research Direction for Internet of Things”, IEEE internetof things journal, vol.
1, no. 1, February 20144Shulong Wang, Yibin Hou, Fang Gao and Xinrong Ji, “A Novel IoT AccessArchitecture for Vehical Monitoring System”, IEEE978-1-4130-5/2016.5Xiaohu Fan, Qubo Xie, Xuebin Li, Hao Huang, Jian Wang, Si Chen, Changsheng Xie,Jiajing Chen, Xiaohu Fan, Hao Huang,” Activity Recognition as a Service forSmart Home Ambient Assisted Living Application via Sensing Home”, 2017 IEEEInternational Conference on AI & Mobile Services (AIMS), pp54-616Xian-Jun Yi, Min Zhou, Jian Liu,” Design of Smart Home Control System byInternet of Things based on ZigBee”, 2016 IEEE 11th Conference on IndustrialElectronics and Applications (ICIEA), pp128-1337United Nations Economic and Social Council Commission on Science and Technologyfor Development Nineteenth session Geneva, 9–13 May 20168Nikesh Gondchawar, Prof. Dr. R. S. Kawitkar,” Smart Agriculture Using IoT andWSN Based Modern Technologies”, International Journal of Innovative Research inComputer and Communication Engineering, Vol.
4, Issue 6, June 20169Dr.N.Suma,SandraRheaSamson,S.Saranya,G.Shanmugapriya,R.
Subhashri, “IOT Based Smart AgricultureMonitoring System”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends inComputing and Communication Volume: 5 Issue: 2 pp 177 – 18110Mashreen Nesa and Indrajit Banarjee,” IoT based Data fusion for occupancysensing using Dempsrer-shafer Evidence Theory for smart Buildings”, IEEEInternet of things Journal 200911S.M. Riazul Islam (Member of IEEE), Daehan kwak, MD.
Humaun Kabir, MahmudHossain and kyung-sup Kwak (Member of IEEE),” The Internet of Things for Healthcare: Comprehensive Survey”, IEEE Access, volume 3 2015 pp 678-70712Vivek pardeshi, Saurabh Sagar, Swapnil Murmurwar, Pankaj Hange,” HealthMonitoring Systems using IoT and Raspberry Pi- A review, InternationalConference on Innovative Mechanism for industry application (ICMIA 2017).13Mamidi Manisha, Katakam Neeraja, Vemuri Sindhura, and Paruchuri Ramya, ” IoT onHeart attack detection and heart rate monitoring”, International Journal ofInnovation in Engineering and technology (IJIET), Volume 7 Issue 2 August 201614http://computer.expressbpd.com/columns/icts-and-smart-cities/2434/