Abstract method to high user profile crimes for


Cybercrimes are responsible for the
disruption of typical computer functions and contains been proven to cause the
particular downfall of several companies and also personal agencies. This study
paper aims to talk about following areas of Cybercrimes: this is, why they will
occur, regulations governing these, methods regarding committing cybercrimes,
which they have an effect on, and cybercrime reduction procedures. A lot more
specifically, this papers will look into one principal example regarding
cybercrime “hacking”. The record will present the use and further advancement
of engineering has amplified several types of crimes for instance theft
offenses and terrorism. Furthermore, this record will exhibit statistical data
that may give a thought of how long cybercrimes provides increase on the period
of a decade or a lot more.

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In the modern technology-driven grow older, keeping our private information
private has become more hard. The the fact is, highly categorized details have
become more open to public directories, because we’re more interconnected than
ever before. Our data can be obtained for almost any person to dig through for
this reason interconnectivity. This creates an adverse stigma that using
technology is actually dangerous simply because practically anybody can entry
one’s personal information for a cost. Technology is constantly on the promise
to help ease our every day lives; nevertheless, there tend to be dangers
associated with using technologies. One from the main hazards of utilizing
technology may be the threat associated with cybercrimes.
Common online users may be unacquainted with cybercrimes, let alone how to
proceed if these people fall target of cyber episodes. Many not guilty
individuals drop victim in order to cybercrimes all over the world, especially
because technology is actually evolving in a rapid speed. Cybercrimes tend to
be any offences that harm another individual utilizing a computer along with a
network. Cybercrimes may appear by problems surrounding transmission of
privateness and discretion. When privateness and private information is
actually lost or even interrupted through unlawfully people, it gives method to
high user profile crimes for example hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage,
monetary theft, copyright laws infringement, spamming, cyber warfare and much
more crimes that occur throughout borders. Cybercrimes sometimes happens to
anybody once their own information is actually breach through an illegal user.
(webopedia. com)
Based on Norton, “over the final 18 several weeks, an threatening change offers
swept over the internet. The risk landscape as soon as dominated through the
worms as well as viruses let loose by irresponsible hackers has become ruled
with a new variety of cybercriminals. Cybercrime is actually motivated through fraud,
typified through the bogus e-mail sent through “phishers” that try to
steal individual information” (Cybercrime 2011) Cybercrimes have the effect of
the success of the respective felony assets and also the downfall of numerous
companies as well as personal organizations.
Cybercrimes createanoverwhelming job for police force bureaussince they’re
extremelytechnological offences. Law enforcement organizations should have
individuals been trained in computer disciplinesand pc forensics to be able to
accurately check out computer offences or cybercrimes which have been
committed. Furthermore, many says must modernize as well as generate laws,
which disallows cybercrimes as well as outlines suitablepenalties for all those
crimes. Cybercrimes will probably become much more frequent using the arrival
associated with advance systems. It is essential that civilians, regulation
officials, and additional associates from the justice program are well-informed
regarding cybercrimes to be able to diminish the actual threat which theycause.
The objective of this paper would be to educate those who don’t understand what
are cybercrimes and it is importance within growing technical advance all
through society. Understanding the actual threat associated with cybercrimes is
really a very relevant issue simply because technology holds an excellent
impact upon our society in general. Cybercrime keeps growing every day time
because because technological evolving in computers causes it to be very
possible for anyone in order to steal without having physically doing harm to
anyone due to the lack associated with knowledge to everyone of exactly how
cybercrimes tend to be committed and how to protect on their own against this
kind of threats which cybercrimes presents. This document will talk about
several facets of Cybercrimes such as: defining the word, why cybercrimes
happen, laws regulating them, ways of committing cybercrimes, who’s affected,
and avoidance procedures and much more.



the Problem

Currently, when
individual talk about cybercrime, they may not understand the extent of these
crimes. Many questions arise when the term cybercrime is brought into question.
Some questions that arise are, “Does cybercrimes only done via the internet?”,
“Cybercrimes are done via computers only?” and so on, however, traditional
crimes such as theft and fraud that have been done via physical ways are now
been converted into digital resources and are now considered as
cybercrimes.  But what are cybercrimes?

A commonly
accepted definition of this term is that a cybercrime is a “crime committed
using a computer and the internet to steal a person’s identity or sell
contraband or stalk victims or disrupt operations with malevolent programs”
(Definition of Cybercrimes).However, other definitions have constraints to
anexpansivemeaning to more closelydescribe the word “cybercrime”. “.  Some
of these definitions as follow:

Ø New
World Encyclopedia defines it as
“is a term used broadly to describe activity in which computers or computer
networks are the tool, target, or place of criminal activity. These categories
are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or
more categories.” www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Cybercrime


Ø Bukisa defines it as “It is this access to the technical specifications
of how the Internet and Internet technologies are implemented that allows an
attacker to subvert systems, networks and the Internet for their own ends.”www.bukisa.com/articles/206_internet-security-concepts


Ø Webopedia defines it as “Cybercrime encompasses any criminal act dealing
with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cybercrime also
includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate
crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card
account thefts are considered to be cybercrimes when the illegal activities are
committed through the use of a computer and the Internet.”http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cyber_crime.html


Ø WiseGeek defines it as “Cybercrimes are generally defined as any type of
illegal activity that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network,
or an in-house computer system. While many forms of cybercrime revolve around
the appropriation of proprietary information for unauthorized use, other
examples are focused more on an invasion of privacy. As a growing problem
around the world, many countries are beginning to implement laws and other
regulatory mechanisms in an attempt to minimize the incidence of cybercrime.” http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cybercrime.htm


Ø SearchSecurity defines it as “for any illegal activity that uses a computer as
its primary means of commission. The U.S. Department of Justice expands the
definition of cybercrime to include any illegal activity that uses a computer
for the storage of evidence. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cybercrime


Ø Wikipedia defines it as “Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crime
that involves a computer and a network. 1 The computer may have been used in
the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.2 Netcrime refers, more
precisely, to criminal exploitation of the Internet.3 Issues surrounding this
type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking,
copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also
problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crime

While there are many different definitions of cybercrime
they all have a few key concepts throughout. These key concepts are criminal
activity and the use or abuse of computers. With these concepts in mind cyber
crime can be easily defined as using a computer to commit a criminal act

Causes of Cybercrimes & methods of committing

are many ways or means where cybercrimes can occur. Here are a few causes and
methods of how cybercrimes can be committed on a daily basis: Hacking, Theft of
information contained in electronic form, Email bombing, Data diddling, Salami
attacks, Denial of Service attack, Virus / worm attacks, Logic bombs, Trojan
attacks, Internet time theft, and Web jacking.

v Hacking: In
other words can be referred to as the unauthorized access to any computer
systems or network. This method can occur if computer hardware and software has
any weaknesses which can be infiltrated if such hardware or software has a lack
in patching, security control, configuration or poor password choice.

v Theft
of information contained in electronic form:
This type of method occur when information stored in computersystems are
infiltrated and are altered or physically being seized via hard disks;
removable storage media or other virtual medium.

v Email
bombing:This is another form of internet misuse where
individuals directs amass numbers of mail to the victim or an address in
attempt to overflow the mailbox, which may be an individual or a company or
even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing. There are two
methods of perpetrating an email bomb which include mass mailing and list

v Data
diddling: Is the changing of data before or during
an intrusion into the computer system. This kind of an occurrence involves
moving raw data just before a computer can processes it and then altering it
back after the processing is completed.

v Salami
attacks: This kind of crime is normally consisting
of a number of smaller data security attacks together end resulting in one
major attack. This method normally takes place in the financial institutions or
for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this
type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go
unnoticed. This form of cybercrime is very common in banks where employees can
steal small amount and it’s very difficult to detect or trace an example is
the “Ziegler case”wherein a logic bomb penetrated the bank’s
system, which deducted only 10 cents from every account and deposited it in one
particular account which is known as the “penny shaving”.

v Denial
of Service attack: Is basically where a
computer system becomes unavailable to it’s authorize end user. This form of
attack generally relates to computer networks where the computer of the victim
is submerged with more requests than it can handle which in turn causing the pc
to crash. E.g. Amazon, Yahoo. Other incident occursNovember,
2010 whistle blower site wikileaks.org got a DDoS attack.

v Virus
/ worm attacks: Viruses
are programs that can embed themselves to any file. The program
thencopiesitself and spreads to other computers on a network which they
affectanything on them, either by changing or erasing it. However, worms are
not like viruses, they do not need the host to attach themselves to but
makeuseful copies of them and do this constantly till they consume up all the
available space on a computer’s memory. E.g. love bug virus,
which affected at least 5 % of the computers around the world.

Logic bombs:They
are basically a set of instructions where can be secretly be execute into a
program where if a particular condition is true can be carried out the end
result usually ends with harmful effects. This suggests that these programs are
produced to do something only when a specific event (known as a trigger event)
occurs. E.g. Chernobyl virus.

v   Trojan
attacks:The term suggests where a program or
programs mask themselves as valuable tools but accomplish damaging tasks to the
computer. These programs are unlawful which flaccidly gains control over
another’s system by assuming the role as an authorised program. The most common
form of a Trojan is through e-mail. E.g. lady film director in
the U.S.

v  Internet
time thefts:This form is kinds of embezzlementswhere the fraudulentuses
the Internet surfing hours of the victim as their own which can be complete
byobtaining access to the login ID and the password, an example is Colonel
Bajwa’s case- in this incident the Internet hours were used up by
a  unauthorized person.

v Web
jacking: This is where the hacker obtains access
and can control web site of another person, where he or she can destroy or
alter the information on the siteas they see fit to them.This type of method of
cybercrime is done for satisfying political agendas or for purely monetary
means. An example of such method was MIT (Ministry of Information Technology)
was hacked by the Pakistani hackers whereas another was the ‘gold fish’ case,
site was hacked and the information relating to gold fish was altered and the
sum of $ 1 million was demanded.



Prevention and Procedure

In this modern age, it seems almost
impossible to avoid being a victim of cybercrime, with all the advancements in
technology which make it easy for someone to perform cybercrimes. In light of
this, there are some ways however to avoid becoming a victim of cybercrime.
Most internet browsers email service, and Internet providers provide a
spam-blocking feature to prevent unwanted messages, such as fraudulent emails
and phishing emails, from getting to your inbox. However, every user must
ensure to turn them on and do not turn them off whatsoever. Also, users must
install and keep up-to-date antivirus programs, firewalls and spyware checkers.
Along with keeping them up to date, users must make sure that they run the
scans regularly. There are many companies out there that provide free software,
but there are other you can purchase, along with that of the many produced by
the leading companies providers; in addition, those companies provide free
version of their paid or subscription antivirus software. Encryption of
information that you do not want anyone to have unauthorized access to is a
good way to avoid some cybercrimes; information such as password and credit
card information for example. Encryption software runs your data through
encryption algorithms to make it unintelligible to anyone who tries to hack
into your computer.

Another good precaution is to be weary
of who you divulge your personal information to. Try to avoid unknown websites,
in particular those that ask for your name, mailing address, bank account
number or social security number. When doing online shopping make sure website
is secure, look for urls that starts with “https”and/or have the Trustee or
VeriSign seal. If you do not see these anywhere on the site, you run the risk
of submitting credit card information and other personal information to a site
that maybe a fraud.

Another way to avoid being a victim of
cybercrimes is to avoid being susceptible to common frauds, such as inherences
letter, letter asking for your help in placing large sums of money in overseas
bank accounts, foreign lotteries, and phony sweepstakes. Those mentioned
activities are all methods used by cyber criminals to get your personal
information and money. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.

Educate children about the proper use of
the computer and internet and make sure to monitor their online activities at
home and school alike. They should only have access to a computer located in a
central area of your home and you should regularly check all browser and email
activity. A wise thing to is to use parental control software that limits the
type of sites the user can gain access to. In schools, there should be
restricted websites and other user restrictions that will help protect the user
and entity from cybercrime. Likewise, companies should educate and have written
policies governing the workplace pc and its network use to diminish the risk of
cybercrime against the company.

          One definite way to ensure that you
don’t fall victim of cybercrimes is to disconnect your computer entirely from
the internet. If there is no network, then you don’t have to worry about any
cyber-attacks. However, this option is not the most viable one in our
interconnected society. The truth is, it is up to you to take the necessary precautions
to avoid potential cybercrimes.






Cybercrimeswill always be an ongoing
challenge despite the advancements being made by numerous countries. Most
countries have their own laws to combat cybercrimes, but some doesn’t have any
new laws but solely relies on standard terrestrial law to prosecute these
crimes. Along with outdated laws to combat cybercrime, there are still feeble
penalties set in place to punish criminals, thus doing no major prevention of
cybercrimes’ which affect the economy and people’s social lives on a large
scale by those criminals. Consequently, there is a desperate need for countries
on a global scale to come together and decide on what constitute a cybercrime,
and develop ways in which to persecute criminals across different countries.

It is recommend that until sufficient
legal actions can be put in place where individual countries and global ways of
persecution criminals, self-protection remains the first line of defense. The
everyday individuals and businesses need to make sure they are educated on what
to do in terms of prevent in becoming the next victim of cybercrimes. This
basic awareness can help prevent potential cybercrimes against them.

is almost impossible to reducecybercrime from the cyber-space. Looking back on
the many different acts passed, history can be witness that no legislation has
thrived in total eliminationof cybercrime from the world. The only possible
step is to make people aware of their rights and duties and further making more
punishable laws which is more stringent to check them. Undoubtedly, the
different Actswere and still are historical steps in the virtual world as we
know it. This further suggests that there is a need to conveymodifications in
the Information Technology Act so it can be more effective to fightcybercrimes.
Caution should be employedfor the pro-legislation educational institutions that
the requirements of the cyber laws are not prepared so rigorous that it may
delay the growth of the commerce and demonstrate to be counter-productive to
many.Remember, cybercriminals are evolving as well in terms of computer
knowledge per technological advancement made.

business should employ practices where their employees follow proper safety
practices to ensure that integrity and confidentially of stored information is
kept at all times to combat cybercrimes. Safety practices like ensuring that
staying off game sites on company time where viruses can be downloaded,
forwarding chain emails, leaving workstation unattended or password sharing
over virtual mediums should be prohibited. With all these safety practices
implemented,it can be said that the safety of many clients stored information
is optimal.



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