Type: Definition Essays
Sample donated: Alberta May
Last updated: September 27, 2019
AbstractCybercrimes are responsible for thedisruption of typical computer functions and contains been proven to cause theparticular downfall of several companies and also personal agencies. This studypaper aims to talk about following areas of Cybercrimes: this is, why they willoccur, regulations governing these, methods regarding committing cybercrimes,which they have an effect on, and cybercrime reduction procedures.
A lot morespecifically, this papers will look into one principal example regardingcybercrime “hacking”. The record will present the use and further advancementof engineering has amplified several types of crimes for instance theftoffenses and terrorism. Furthermore, this record will exhibit statistical datathat may give a thought of how long cybercrimes provides increase on the periodof a decade or a lot more.IntroductionIn the modern technology-driven grow older, keeping our private informationprivate has become more hard.
The the fact is, highly categorized details havebecome more open to public directories, because we’re more interconnected thanever before. Our data can be obtained for almost any person to dig through forthis reason interconnectivity. This creates an adverse stigma that usingtechnology is actually dangerous simply because practically anybody can entryone’s personal information for a cost. Technology is constantly on the promiseto help ease our every day lives; nevertheless, there tend to be dangersassociated with using technologies. One from the main hazards of utilizingtechnology may be the threat associated with cybercrimes.
Common online users may be unacquainted with cybercrimes, let alone how toproceed if these people fall target of cyber episodes. Many not guiltyindividuals drop victim in order to cybercrimes all over the world, especiallybecause technology is actually evolving in a rapid speed. Cybercrimes tend tobe any offences that harm another individual utilizing a computer along with anetwork. Cybercrimes may appear by problems surrounding transmission ofprivateness and discretion. When privateness and private information isactually lost or even interrupted through unlawfully people, it gives method tohigh user profile crimes for example hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage,monetary theft, copyright laws infringement, spamming, cyber warfare and muchmore crimes that occur throughout borders. Cybercrimes sometimes happens toanybody once their own information is actually breach through an illegal user.(webopedia. com)Based on Norton, “over the final 18 several weeks, an threatening change offersswept over the internet.
The risk landscape as soon as dominated through theworms as well as viruses let loose by irresponsible hackers has become ruledwith a new variety of cybercriminals. Cybercrime is actually motivated through fraud,typified through the bogus e-mail sent through “phishers” that try tosteal individual information” (Cybercrime 2011) Cybercrimes have the effect ofthe success of the respective felony assets and also the downfall of numerouscompanies as well as personal organizations.Cybercrimes createanoverwhelming job for police force bureaussince they’reextremelytechnological offences.
Law enforcement organizations should haveindividuals been trained in computer disciplinesand pc forensics to be able toaccurately check out computer offences or cybercrimes which have beencommitted. Furthermore, many says must modernize as well as generate laws,which disallows cybercrimes as well as outlines suitablepenalties for all thosecrimes. Cybercrimes will probably become much more frequent using the arrivalassociated with advance systems.
It is essential that civilians, regulationofficials, and additional associates from the justice program are well-informedregarding cybercrimes to be able to diminish the actual threat which theycause.The objective of this paper would be to educate those who don’t understand whatare cybercrimes and it is importance within growing technical advance allthrough society. Understanding the actual threat associated with cybercrimes isreally a very relevant issue simply because technology holds an excellentimpact upon our society in general. Cybercrime keeps growing every day timebecause because technological evolving in computers causes it to be verypossible for anyone in order to steal without having physically doing harm toanyone due to the lack associated with knowledge to everyone of exactly howcybercrimes tend to be committed and how to protect on their own against thiskind of threats which cybercrimes presents.
This document will talk aboutseveral facets of Cybercrimes such as: defining the word, why cybercrimeshappen, laws regulating them, ways of committing cybercrimes, who’s affected,and avoidance procedures and much more. Definingthe ProblemCurrently, whenindividual talk about cybercrime, they may not understand the extent of thesecrimes. Many questions arise when the term cybercrime is brought into question.Some questions that arise are, “Does cybercrimes only done via the internet?”,”Cybercrimes are done via computers only?” and so on, however, traditionalcrimes such as theft and fraud that have been done via physical ways are nowbeen converted into digital resources and are now considered ascybercrimes. But what are cybercrimes?A commonlyaccepted definition of this term is that a cybercrime is a “crime committedusing a computer and the internet to steal a person’s identity or sellcontraband or stalk victims or disrupt operations with malevolent programs”(Definition of Cybercrimes).However, other definitions have constraints toanexpansivemeaning to more closelydescribe the word “cybercrime”.
“. Someof these definitions as follow:Ø NewWorld Encyclopedia defines it as”is a term used broadly to describe activity in which computers or computernetworks are the tool, target, or place of criminal activity. These categoriesare not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one ormore categories.” www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Cybercrime Ø Bukisa defines it as “It is this access to the technical specificationsof how the Internet and Internet technologies are implemented that allows anattacker to subvert systems, networks and the Internet for their own ends.
“www.bukisa.com/articles/206_internet-security-concepts Ø Webopedia defines it as “Cybercrime encompasses any criminal act dealingwith computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cybercrime alsoincludes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hatecrimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit cardaccount thefts are considered to be cybercrimes when the illegal activities arecommitted through the use of a computer and the Internet.”http://www.webopedia.
com/TERM/C/cyber_crime.html Ø WiseGeek defines it as “Cybercrimes are generally defined as any type ofillegal activity that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network,or an in-house computer system. While many forms of cybercrime revolve aroundthe appropriation of proprietary information for unauthorized use, otherexamples are focused more on an invasion of privacy. As a growing problemaround the world, many countries are beginning to implement laws and otherregulatory mechanisms in an attempt to minimize the incidence of cybercrime.” http://www.wisegeek.
com/what-is-cybercrime.htm Ø SearchSecurity defines it as “for any illegal activity that uses a computer asits primary means of commission. The U.S.
Department of Justice expands thedefinition of cybercrime to include any illegal activity that uses a computerfor the storage of evidence. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cybercrime Ø Wikipedia defines it as “Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crimethat involves a computer and a network. 1 The computer may have been used inthe commission of a crime, or it may be the target.2 Netcrime refers, moreprecisely, to criminal exploitation of the Internet.
3 Issues surrounding thistype of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking,copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are alsoproblems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,lawfully or otherwise.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crimeWhile there are many different definitions of cybercrimethey all have a few key concepts throughout.
These key concepts are criminalactivity and the use or abuse of computers. With these concepts in mind cybercrime can be easily defined as using a computer to commit a criminal actCauses of Cybercrimes & methods of committing Thereare many ways or means where cybercrimes can occur. Here are a few causes andmethods of how cybercrimes can be committed on a daily basis: Hacking, Theft ofinformation contained in electronic form, Email bombing, Data diddling, Salamiattacks, Denial of Service attack, Virus / worm attacks, Logic bombs, Trojanattacks, Internet time theft, and Web jacking.(http://www.naavi.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03.htm).
v Hacking: Inother words can be referred to as the unauthorized access to any computersystems or network. This method can occur if computer hardware and software hasany weaknesses which can be infiltrated if such hardware or software has a lackin patching, security control, configuration or poor password choice.v Theftof information contained in electronic form:This type of method occur when information stored in computersystems areinfiltrated and are altered or physically being seized via hard disks;removable storage media or other virtual medium.v Emailbombing:This is another form of internet misuse whereindividuals directs amass numbers of mail to the victim or an address inattempt to overflow the mailbox, which may be an individual or a company oreven mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing. There are twomethods of perpetrating an email bomb which include mass mailing and listlinking.v Datadiddling: Is the changing of data before or duringan intrusion into the computer system.
This kind of an occurrence involvesmoving raw data just before a computer can processes it and then altering itback after the processing is completed. v Salamiattacks: This kind of crime is normally consistingof a number of smaller data security attacks together end resulting in onemajor attack. This method normally takes place in the financial institutions orfor the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of thistype of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally gounnoticed. This form of cybercrime is very common in banks where employees cansteal small amount and it’s very difficult to detect or trace an example isthe “Ziegler case”wherein a logic bomb penetrated the bank’ssystem, which deducted only 10 cents from every account and deposited it in oneparticular account which is known as the “penny shaving”.v Denialof Service attack: Is basically where acomputer system becomes unavailable to it’s authorize end user.
This form ofattack generally relates to computer networks where the computer of the victimis submerged with more requests than it can handle which in turn causing the pcto crash. E.g. Amazon, Yahoo. Other incident occursNovember,2010 whistle blower site wikileaks.org got a DDoS attack.
v Virus/ worm attacks: Virusesare programs that can embed themselves to any file. The programthencopiesitself and spreads to other computers on a network which theyaffectanything on them, either by changing or erasing it. However, worms arenot like viruses, they do not need the host to attach themselves to butmakeuseful copies of them and do this constantly till they consume up all theavailable space on a computer’s memory. E.g. love bug virus,which affected at least 5 % of the computers around the world. vLogic bombs:Theyare basically a set of instructions where can be secretly be execute into aprogram where if a particular condition is true can be carried out the endresult usually ends with harmful effects. This suggests that these programs areproduced to do something only when a specific event (known as a trigger event)occurs.
E.g. Chernobyl virus.
v Trojanattacks:The term suggests where a program orprograms mask themselves as valuable tools but accomplish damaging tasks to thecomputer. These programs are unlawful which flaccidly gains control overanother’s system by assuming the role as an authorised program. The most commonform of a Trojan is through e-mail. E.g. lady film director inthe U.S.
v Internettime thefts:This form is kinds of embezzlementswhere the fraudulentusesthe Internet surfing hours of the victim as their own which can be completebyobtaining access to the login ID and the password, an example is ColonelBajwa’s case- in this incident the Internet hours were used up bya unauthorized person. v Webjacking: This is where the hacker obtains accessand can control web site of another person, where he or she can destroy oralter the information on the siteas they see fit to them.This type of method ofcybercrime is done for satisfying political agendas or for purely monetarymeans.
An example of such method was MIT (Ministry of Information Technology)was hacked by the Pakistani hackers whereas another was the ‘gold fish’ case,site was hacked and the information relating to gold fish was altered and thesum of $ 1 million was demanded.http://www.naavi.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03.htm. Prevention and ProcedureIn this modern age, it seems almostimpossible to avoid being a victim of cybercrime, with all the advancements intechnology which make it easy for someone to perform cybercrimes.
In light ofthis, there are some ways however to avoid becoming a victim of cybercrime.Most internet browsers email service, and Internet providers provide aspam-blocking feature to prevent unwanted messages, such as fraudulent emailsand phishing emails, from getting to your inbox. However, every user mustensure to turn them on and do not turn them off whatsoever. Also, users mustinstall and keep up-to-date antivirus programs, firewalls and spyware checkers.
Along with keeping them up to date, users must make sure that they run thescans regularly. There are many companies out there that provide free software,but there are other you can purchase, along with that of the many produced bythe leading companies providers; in addition, those companies provide freeversion of their paid or subscription antivirus software. Encryption ofinformation that you do not want anyone to have unauthorized access to is agood way to avoid some cybercrimes; information such as password and creditcard information for example. Encryption software runs your data throughencryption algorithms to make it unintelligible to anyone who tries to hackinto your computer.Another good precaution is to be wearyof who you divulge your personal information to. Try to avoid unknown websites,in particular those that ask for your name, mailing address, bank accountnumber or social security number. When doing online shopping make sure websiteis secure, look for urls that starts with “https”and/or have the Trustee orVeriSign seal. If you do not see these anywhere on the site, you run the riskof submitting credit card information and other personal information to a sitethat maybe a fraud.
Another way to avoid being a victim ofcybercrimes is to avoid being susceptible to common frauds, such as inherencesletter, letter asking for your help in placing large sums of money in overseasbank accounts, foreign lotteries, and phony sweepstakes. Those mentionedactivities are all methods used by cyber criminals to get your personalinformation and money. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.Educate children about the proper use ofthe computer and internet and make sure to monitor their online activities athome and school alike. They should only have access to a computer located in acentral area of your home and you should regularly check all browser and emailactivity. A wise thing to is to use parental control software that limits thetype of sites the user can gain access to.
In schools, there should berestricted websites and other user restrictions that will help protect the userand entity from cybercrime. Likewise, companies should educate and have writtenpolicies governing the workplace pc and its network use to diminish the risk ofcybercrime against the company. One definite way to ensure that youdon’t fall victim of cybercrimes is to disconnect your computer entirely fromthe internet. If there is no network, then you don’t have to worry about anycyber-attacks. However, this option is not the most viable one in ourinterconnected society. The truth is, it is up to you to take the necessary precautionsto avoid potential cybercrimes.
Conclusion Cybercrimeswill always be an ongoingchallenge despite the advancements being made by numerous countries. Mostcountries have their own laws to combat cybercrimes, but some doesn’t have anynew laws but solely relies on standard terrestrial law to prosecute thesecrimes. Along with outdated laws to combat cybercrime, there are still feeblepenalties set in place to punish criminals, thus doing no major prevention ofcybercrimes’ which affect the economy and people’s social lives on a largescale by those criminals.
Consequently, there is a desperate need for countrieson a global scale to come together and decide on what constitute a cybercrime,and develop ways in which to persecute criminals across different countries. It is recommend that until sufficientlegal actions can be put in place where individual countries and global ways ofpersecution criminals, self-protection remains the first line of defense. Theeveryday individuals and businesses need to make sure they are educated on whatto do in terms of prevent in becoming the next victim of cybercrimes. Thisbasic awareness can help prevent potential cybercrimes against them.Itis almost impossible to reducecybercrime from the cyber-space. Looking back onthe many different acts passed, history can be witness that no legislation hasthrived in total eliminationof cybercrime from the world. The only possiblestep is to make people aware of their rights and duties and further making morepunishable laws which is more stringent to check them.
Undoubtedly, thedifferent Actswere and still are historical steps in the virtual world as weknow it. This further suggests that there is a need to conveymodifications inthe Information Technology Act so it can be more effective to fightcybercrimes.Caution should be employedfor the pro-legislation educational institutions thatthe requirements of the cyber laws are not prepared so rigorous that it maydelay the growth of the commerce and demonstrate to be counter-productive tomany.
Remember, cybercriminals are evolving as well in terms of computerknowledge per technological advancement made.Nevertheless,business should employ practices where their employees follow proper safetypractices to ensure that integrity and confidentially of stored information iskept at all times to combat cybercrimes. Safety practices like ensuring thatstaying off game sites on company time where viruses can be downloaded,forwarding chain emails, leaving workstation unattended or password sharingover virtual mediums should be prohibited. With all these safety practicesimplemented,it can be said that the safety of many clients stored informationis optimal.