Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Melody Mitchell
Last updated: February 27, 2019
Abstract-The new emerging technologies inIoT makes easy for user to find location as well as to get information aboutthe location. In this paper, briefly explain about indoor location aware systemand their different methods. There are different methods and techniques areused for indoor location with mainlyrespect to IoT .One of the method is by using wearable devices and thesedevices are able to combine with image recognition for capturing images aswells as localization capabilities for getting location information. Thus thesecan provide identification of user as well as other objects that come acrossthe user.
This can be highly used in museum for enhancing the user experience.By using Bluetooth low energy (BTLE) infrastructure the consumption energy canbe reduced .It also provide useful information to external users and shareexperience through social networks with cloud storage .It also interact withheterogeneous technologies that control the status of the environment.technologies.
It also allows to easy extending to new technologies which alsoimprove flexibility and scalability. Another method used for indoor location isby using vibration sensor. Vibration Sensor fixed in building’s differentposition help to locate pedestrian or user’s movement. Another method isconsider as high accurate for indoor location .This will provide high precisein user location which uses surveillance camera which also help to providecentimetre grade accuracy. Keywords:Internet of Things (IoT), Bluetooth low energy (BTLE), Image recognition,Centimeter -Grade Localization, Middleware. Internet ofThings (IoT) is the connection of things to internet as Figure 1.
The IoTallows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing networkinfrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of thephysical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improving theefficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced humanintervention. Location-awareness is highly remarkable subject in IoT fields, asmany applications exploit location information to provide services such asguidance and use it to control lighting or temperature in the environment.Smart connected locations to express our idea on location based data becomereally valuable in day to day life of people in this time. Indoor is where themoney spends, meet friends, and where business happens. Thus indoor location orposition is very important. Navigation inside the large malls, museumsairports, which make easier as well as save time 4.Thus Indoor Location provides the position insidebuildings. Thus positioning can be done in different ways and by accompanyingother technologies like image processing increases the accuracy of systems.
Inthis paper various method indoor localization with different technologies areincorporated. And these method’s features are briefly compared. There are differentmethodologies arisesing in the field of Indoor Location aware orpositioning.Many other fields like image processing ,artifical intelligence etcare accompained with IoT which increase the usability as well as theaccuracy.Some of the methods are:One of the method isused in Muesuem for indoor location aware system1.In this method mainlylocation service ,artwork recognition are key notes.Here the location serviceor location information is given by the devives which is installed in differentareas of muesuem which is termed as landmarks.These devices are embedded withbluetooth low energy interface due to low energy consumption.
Mainly locationservices is distributed with wearable device and processing center.Wearabledevice has image recogintion service to dectect artwork.RANSAC algorithm ismainly used for image recognition service 6.
Processing center proccess theseinformation and it can send information to user as well as extrenal agents.Itcan access the cloud ,so this willincrease thebusinness value.This can also provide the audio information ofartwork to user.The advantages of this method is large as user’s position alongwith object can be identifed.Using of wearable device the potential negativeimpact of mobile phone can reduce.The main advantage of this is because ofusing middleware in processing center.
Due to this the whole system can interactor accompained with other technologies such as KNX9,Constrained ApplicationProtocol(CoAP) 4.In this method the user’sposition and object can beidentified with accurate. By using middleware the scalability and flexibilityincreases.
BTLE reduces energy consumption in front of a communication range comparablewith that of the traditional Bluetooth. The overall structure is shown inFigure 2.Another methodis used for indoor location is by using vibration sensor. Vibration Sensorfixed in building’s different position help to locate pedestrian or user’smovement. Here the vibration propagation is sensed by vibration sensors whichare fixed in buildings. The solid wave propagation and radio wave propagationhave differences which can be evident by different algorithms or techniques.Distance based measurement such as time-of-arrival (TOA), timedifference-of-arrival (TDOA), received signal strength (RSS)) or angle-basedmeasurements such as angle-of-arrival (AOA) are mainly applicable for the solidwave propagation which priory used. In current trend the source vibration canbe detected and located from footstep magnitude force of pedestrian.
Mainly twoprocessing stages: (1) Attempts to detect each footstep and (2) localizingdetected footsteps when possible. In the first stage, the data was processed byexamining half-second windows (which is less than the time between footsteps)and detecting footsteps (peaks in the vibration signal that exceed a giventhreshold) at multiple sensors. In the second stage, when at least four sensorsdetect a footstep within a given interval, localization is performed usingTDOA.Another methodis video based indoor positioning system (VIPS) which provide centimetre gradelocalization for IoT. In this method highly accurate positioning information isachieved by integrating the installed surveillance camera in building with IoT5. This enables micro location aware IoT services as well as applications insmart environment.
This can be used to estimate the precise position ofindividual as well as this can be detects the facing direction of eachindividual. Indoor positioning units are installed at different areas ofbuilding for capture, detect and broadcast the location information ofindividuals which uses wireless network interface (Wi-Fi/4G) forenvironment-to-individual (E2I) communications, surveillance cameras for imagecapturing, database for mapping pixels to locations, and a microprocessor forface recognition and pixel mapping 8. Mobile handheld unit (MHU) is used forreceiving position information for user from IPU which consists of a wirelessnetwork interface for E2I communications and a microprocessor for identifiermatching 7. By installing multiple surveillance cameras at different placesto monitor the same area, the facing direction of the individual can bedetected. Firstly the IPU check whether any individuals are there in the area.If individuals are there, their image is captured by surveillance cameras. Thenthe faces of all individuals in the captured image are detected.
Then thedetected face and associated identifier (e.g., user account) of each individualare recognized. Then the centre pixel of each face on the camera image ismapped to the location in the area for providing centimeter-grade accuracy.
Finally, the IPU broadcasts the positioning message containing the identifiers,positions, and directions of all individuals on the camera to MHUs. When a MHUreceives a positioning message, it compares its individual identifier with theones in the positioning message. If the same identifier is found in thepositioning message, the MHU can obtain the current position and facingdirection of the individual. The overall system architecture is shown in Figure2.2.Position location of a user or a device in a given space isone of the most important elements of contextual information. Location detection has been verysuccessfully implemented at outdoor environments using GPS technology in indoor environments, the usabilityof the GPS or equivalent satellite-based location systems is limited, due tothe lack of line of sight and attenuation of GPS signals as they cross throughwalls. Indeed, precision of some 50 meters inside a commercial setting is uselesswith respect to a task such as locating specific merchandise on a shelf.
Thus,the need for specialized methods and technologies for indoor location systemsare increasing. Indoor localizationprovide intelligent smart building environments which provide facilitate inhospital, industries etc. Thus the first method used in museum which enhanceuser experience as well as in other areas. This method provides user’s positionas well as the object identification i.e. in museum the artwork. It can lead theaccess to cloud storage median the information and user’s experience can passas multimedia content to outside also.
It is also capable for integrating withthe other technology. Thus these are the advantages where some limitations areadditional devices such as wearable devices are required and damages to deviceaffect whole process. Similarly method based vibration are needed more sensorwhich in building as wells as it can only predict location and extensibility islimited. VIPS method provide high accuracy of indoor position i.e.
centimetergrade accuracy which great advantage as compared to other method along with theimage recognition with already installed surveillance cameras in buildingreduce the cost.