Abstract AbstractThe”Internet of things” has become a growing discussion topic ofconversation not only in the office but also at home since it is arevolutionary concept that will both change the way we work but moreover theway we live. So, what exactly is the “Internet of things” and why isit impacting us or will it impact us? A lot of technical, social and political policiesconcerning this topic have been made but many people are still trying tounderstand what it is about. Also, they have been different definitions aroundthe “Internet of things” but in this paper, I wish to stick to mainbasics, thus so giving an overview of what this new concept is and examples of howit is affecting us in our daily lives.This article is directed at providing anall-inclusive overview of the concept of internet of things and how it appliesto human factor designs considerations.
Furthermore, in this paper I reviewedthe common applications, driving technologies and its some of its HF challenges.Keywords: Internet of Things, RFID, WSN 1. INTRODUCTION:THE INTERNET OF THINGSInthe mid 2000’s, Kevin Ashton who then worked for MIT Auto ID lab coined thebasis for what might turn into the Internet of Things. He was one of thepioneers who considered this idea as he researched ways that P companycould improve its business growth by connecting RFID data to the Web.
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1The idea was basic however verypowerful. If every item in day by day life were outfitted with identifiers andremote network, these items or devices could speak with each other and beoverseen by personal computers(PCs). In a 1999 article Ashton expressed:”On the off chance that if we had PCs that knew everything there was tothink about things—utilizing information they accumulated with no assistancefrom us – we would have the capacity to track and check everything, andsignificantly decrease waste and cost. We would know when things requiredreplenishing, repairing or reviewing, and whether they were in top operationalcondition or past their best. So we needed to enable PCs with their own methodsfor gathering data, so they can see, hear and notice the world for themselves, asa result we utilized firstly Radio frequency identification (RFID) which is awireless communication technology that lets computers read the identity ofinexpensive electronic tags from a distance without requiring a battery in thetags and secondly sensor technology to enable computers to watch, distinguishand identify and comprehend the world withoutthe limitations of information that have to be inputted by humans.
2 Internetof Things describes a network where devices in the physical world areassociated with sensors within or joined to these devices by remote or wirelessinternet connectivity. As a result, the Internet of Things will Interface bothlifeless and living things, while using sensors for data collection and changewhat sorts of thing impart over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. 3 2. EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS OF INTERNET OF THINGSBy 2020 there will be much more than 30 billion associated gadgets. Thatis a considerable amount of connectivity and the new slogan for the future willbe that can be made smart by connecting with the internet will be connected. 4But what is our reason for connecting so may devices with each other? There arenumerous cases for what the value of in globalization of internet of thingswill be. Say for instance, picture a student driving his car and headed for aninterview, his automobile could access his/her schedule and optimize his/herroute.
What if our smart phone’s alarm while waking us up, can also signify ourtea maker to start brewing tea for us before we get to the sitting room. The following describes are some of IOTapplications.2.1Smart Traffic.Smart cities with good traffic controlis a crucial part of the future society. It is important that vehicles movingon a road or public highway flows efficiently. There is a need for a structurethat can improve the traffic flow in view of real time data obtained from devicesusing Internet of Things technologies 5. Such an insightful traffic observatorysystem, needs a proper structure for automatic identification of vehicles andother traffic factors.
As a result, it is imperative that we require internetof Things and its advancements as opposed to utilizing basic picture operatingtechniques 6. A smart traffic monitoring system aided by connectivity fromthe internet of things will provide a good transportation experience by facilitatingfree flow of vehicles. It will also provide features like theft-detection,reporting of traffic accidents, etc. The streets of this smart city will giveredirections with climatic changes. The road lighting system will be adaptiveto weather changes as part of conservation of energy etc. 2.2 Environmental Applications.
Internet of Things and its innovationswill be able to accurately predict natural disasters such as hurricanes,tornadoes, flood etc. 2.3Home Applications.Internet of Things will enable theenhancement of do it yourself (DIY) home automation solutions with which wewill have the capacity to remotely control our home appliances/ devicesaccording to our requirements and personal preferences. Correct observation ofutility meters, energy and water supply which will help in energy conservationwhile efficiently detecting leaks and power surges etc.
Also, it will foster enhancedsecurity and trespassing detection system which will prevent burglaries.2.4Health Centers Applications.Medical centers will be installed withsmart adaptable wearable devices which will be provided to the sick patientsand via which health practitioners can observe the necessary vital signs (heartrate, blood pressure, temperature and other conditions) of patients inside oroutside the premises of the health centers 7. 2.
5Automated Farming.Farmers will be able to observe factorslike Soil nourishment, Light, soil moistness etc. and improve the green housingfarming practices by automating watering, fertilization processes which willlead to optimal crop production.2.6Retailing and Supply-chain Administration. Internet of Things with RFID gives manypreferences to retailers. With the equipping of RFID in items, a retailer can easilytrack their stocks.
Retailers can monitor every one of the things in a storeand to keep them from going out of stock. 3.0TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNET OF THINGSThe following are some of the relevanttechnologies that aid in the enlargement / global development of Internet ofThings 3.1Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Radio-frequency identification (RFID) isthe main technology used in uniquely identifying a device. Its tiny size andlow cost enables it to be inputted into any device. It is a transceivermicrochip which could be either active and passive, depending on applicationtype.
it utilizes electromagnetic fields to distinguish and detect tagsattached to devices. The tags houses electronically saved data. They are twotypes of tags, passive and active tags. Active tags have a nearby power source(for example, a battery) and may work several meters from the RFID reader. Passivetags collect power from a nearby RFID reader’s radio waves.
83.2Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) A wireless sensor network is a group ofspecialized transducers with a communications infrastructure for monitoring andrecording conditions at diverse locations. Typical observed parameters aretemperature, pressure, weight, speed, vibration intensity, sound intensity,voltage, and fundamental body capacities 93.
3Cloud Computing Cloud computing is the delivery ofcomputing services which includes servers, storage, databases, networking,software, analytics, etc. over the Web. Companies (for example Goggle) thatprovide these computing services are called cloud suppliers and typicallycharge for cloud computing services based on usage.The cloud seems to be the onlytechnology that can analyze and store all the data effectively. The cloud is byall accounts the main innovation that can dissect and store every one of theinformation successfully. cloud computing is the most essential piece of internetof Things, which unites the servers as well as increases the processing,analyzing and handling power of the valuable data that is gotten from thesensors 10.
3.4 Networking Technologies Networking technologies have alsoplayed a contributing role in the successful development of Internet of Thingssince they are responsible for the connection between the devices. Forwide-range transmission network we typically utilize 3G, 4G etc. So also, for ashort-range system we utilize advancements like Bluetooth, WiFi and so on. 3.
5Nano Innovations This innovation ensures that miniatureand enhanced form of the things are interconnected. Nano inventions ensuresthat energy utilization by a network can be simplified, making it moreefficient. 4. HUMAN FACTORS AND INTERNET OFTHINGS.
Thevalue to be gotten from of the Internet of Things are supposed to be numerous.In any case, the challenges in executing the internet of Things appropriately alsomay be equally numerous. It is said thatupwards of seventy five percent of internet of Things related ventures arecoming up short 11. Since, Internet of things is more than just interfacinggadgets.
When fabricating projects about internet of things, organizationswould increase their success rate by expanding their scope of thinking aboutinnovation to include the human side of the undertaking.Also,most human-innovation interfaces in Internet of Things are still ratherconventional, and generally based on GUIs. Be that as it may, more naturalmultiple mode interaction could result in a more productive and efficient wayof communication with these internet of Things gadgets. unfortunately, suchinterfaces are not studied vastly within the context of Internet of Things. Sotherefore, there is need for publishing of more success case study examples to demonstratethe experiences of various interaction techniques which have been contemplated.
12. Criticalfactors such as safety, feeling of control, and privacy, has led to hugechallenges and push back of the technology. So, more research is needed tounderstand how internet of things affects and changes human behavior in thelong run. 13