Abstract Topology physical connection between nodes. Nodes are


paper provides general information of the introduction and history of digital
communication what Networking is and what it does. The common types of Networks
such as LAN, WAN, PAN and MAN that we have. It also gives information on the various
Network Topologies that are applied are also discussed with images depicted to
provide more understanding. Definitions of Physical and Logical Topologies are
provided. Additionally, common Network nodes that can be found in network
environment are listed with their functions as well as the level of the OSI
model they are present. The conclusion mentions future some vision for physical
links mismatch, Emphasis on how to upgrade topologies for new expansion networks.

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Terms –
Network, Physical Network
Topology, Logical Network Topology, Bus Network Topology, Ring Network
Topology, Star Network Topology, Tree Network Topology, Mesh Network Topology,
Hybrid Topology, Modulation, OFDM , GSM ,TDMA, QAM












Table of Contents
Abstract 1
Introduction. 2
History. 3
Network. 5
Network topology. 6
Bus topology. 7
Star topology. 7
Ring & ‘Point-to-point’ topology. 8
Mesh topology. 9
Hybrid Topology. 9
Main Devices in a Network Connection, Their Functions and
OSI Layer 10
Recommendations & Conclusion: 10
References. 11









Every single
day of our lives, we come in contact with a variety of modern communication systems
or media. One of the most common being the telephone, Internet, TV, radio.
Through these media, we are able to communicate with people over all of world, transact
our daily businesses, and receive information about various developments and
events that occur all around the world. If we try to talk about the application
of technology we need chapters to cover history and the future. As we know, the
communication system builds on wired networks or wireless networks, either
works on signal and these signals can either be digital or analog. Topology is
a way in which constituent parts are interrelated or arranged. Networks Topologies
is an extension of basic Topology physical connection between nodes.  Nodes are devices or data points
on a larger network. Devices such as a personal computer, cell phone, or
printer can be regarded as nodes.
Physical Network Topology emphasizes on the hardware associated with the system
including workstations, terminals, and servers. Logical Network Topology (also
known as Signal Topology) emphasizes on representation data flow between nodes
and terminals. Digital is one of the big challenge on the past century because
its make our life better and essay, in different filed health education, army
and security surveillance, entertainments.










We can say the first step to invention of digital
communication can be taken as far back to the invention of electric battery by Alessandro
Volta in 1799. This gave way to Samuel F. B. Morse who was is known as the
pioneer of electric telegraph, which he demonstrated 1837. The first telegraph
link took place between Washington and Baltimore in 1844.  Telegraph became a most important when it was
heavily used during 2nd World War. After that, we have seen so many inventions
that have occurred which have led to the present day digital communication we
know today. Examples of such inventions are the invention of the first computer
by Charles Babbage, packet switching, ARPANET, advanced research projects
agency network. APRANET used packet switching to allow multiple computers to
communicate on a single network internet.  After that, TCP/IP was developed. APRANET adopted
the TCP/IP protocol and from there, researchers began to assemble these network
concepts that eventually became the modern internet we know today. Tim Berners-Lee took it a step further when he invented the World
Wide Web (WWW) in 1990. The web gave way for people to access information or
data online using websites and hyperlinks. In 1991, the Global System for
Mobile communication, GSM was developed to describe the protocols for
second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices. After this
invention, we can see the accelerated development on networks generation and networks
application. Today, there are varieties of devices that have been created
around the world that are used in high-speed networks communication. These
devices vary from hubs switches routers bridges and so on. Without them network
or communication will seize from happening.


FIG 1:


can be referred to computers or other nodes working together over a network.
Their main aim is to send, protect and receive messages, packets and so on. Networking
is the third layer in the OSI Model AFTER
physical and data link layers and BEFORE
transport, session, presentation and application layers. A network can
either be a wired network or a wireless network. In a wired network, Network
Engineers use cables such as coaxial cable, twisted pair and optical fiber to
transmit data while in the wireless network, Engineers use microwave satellite
and Wi-Fi signals to transmit data. Whichever type of connection that is used
is based on the needs and budget of the individual that is need

four main types of networking are LAN, Local Area Network. WAN, Wide Area
Network, MAN, Metropolitan Area Network and PAN, Personal Area Network

can be described as a type of network that involves a group of computers or
nodes that all belong to an organization and which are connected within a small
geographic area using a network most time the time of network used in this is
the wired network that is Ethernet.

WAN is
a type of network that links a number of LANs to one another over big
geographical distances. Also, can have dedicated high-speed connections between
geographic locations. or we can say any of multiple LAN connected together.


FIG 2: WAN Connection

MAN is a type of network that connect multiple geographically nearby LANs to one
another at high speeds. A MAN gives way for two remote nodes to communicate as
if they were part of the same local area network. A MAN is made from
switches or routers connected to one another with high-speed links which is
usually fiber optic cables.

PAN is a type of network that involves the
transmission of data amongst devices such as computers, mobile phones, tablets
and so on

FIG 3: PAN Connection

Network topology

So, we have spoken about networking and the
types now we want to discuss about network topology. Network topology can
simply be described or referred to as the way or position all nodes in a
network are placed and connected in order for them to transmit amongst each
other.  The network topology can also be
seen as the layout or organizational hierarchy of interconnected nodes of a
computer network. The difference in network topologies can affect throughput,
but the reliability is often more critical.

Fundamental layout of a network, to describes the path or paths between any two
points in the network. Affects availability, speed, traffic and the congestion.

The Logical topology. To operational relationship between various of network

The Physical topology. It’s actual layout of the network wiring


Bus topology

Each node is tapped to the bus, it’s
“broadcasts” a message that travels along the bus. Every node connected to that
bus receives the message. Transmissions travel entire medium (both directions).
The termination is required at ends to prevent reflection by absorbing signals.
The downside of this network is that, if there is a problem with the main cable,
the entire network shuts down. This type of network topology is not very
popular as there are other better network topologies


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