Abstract Topology physical connection between nodes. Nodes are

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Last updated: July 18, 2019

AbstractThispaper provides general information of the introduction and history of digitalcommunication what Networking is and what it does.

The common types of Networkssuch as LAN, WAN, PAN and MAN that we have. It also gives information on the variousNetwork Topologies that are applied are also discussed with images depicted toprovide more understanding. Definitions of Physical and Logical Topologies areprovided. Additionally, common Network nodes that can be found in networkenvironment are listed with their functions as well as the level of the OSImodel they are present. The conclusion mentions future some vision for physicallinks mismatch, Emphasis on how to upgrade topologies for new expansion networks.IndexTerms –Network, Physical NetworkTopology, Logical Network Topology, Bus Network Topology, Ring NetworkTopology, Star Network Topology, Tree Network Topology, Mesh Network Topology,Hybrid Topology, Modulation, OFDM , GSM ,TDMA, QAM            Table of Contents Abstract 1 Introduction.

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2 History. 3 Network. 5 Network topology.

6 Bus topology. 7 Star topology. 7 Ring & ‘Point-to-point’ topology. 8 Mesh topology. 9 Hybrid Topology. 9 Main Devices in a Network Connection, Their Functions and OSI Layer 10 Recommendations & Conclusion: 10 References.

11          Introduction Every singleday of our lives, we come in contact with a variety of modern communication systemsor media. One of the most common being the telephone, Internet, TV, radio.Through these media, we are able to communicate with people over all of world, transactour daily businesses, and receive information about various developments andevents that occur all around the world.

If we try to talk about the applicationof technology we need chapters to cover history and the future. As we know, thecommunication system builds on wired networks or wireless networks, eitherworks on signal and these signals can either be digital or analog. Topology isa way in which constituent parts are interrelated or arranged. Networks Topologiesis an extension of basic Topology physical connection between nodes.  Nodes are devices or data pointson a larger network.

Devices such as a personal computer, cell phone, orprinter can be regarded as nodes.Physical Network Topology emphasizes on the hardware associated with the systemincluding workstations, terminals, and servers. Logical Network Topology (alsoknown as Signal Topology) emphasizes on representation data flow between nodesand terminals. Digital is one of the big challenge on the past century becauseits make our life better and essay, in different filed health education, armyand security surveillance, entertainments.         History We can say the first step to invention of digitalcommunication can be taken as far back to the invention of electric battery by AlessandroVolta in 1799. This gave way to Samuel F. B. Morse who was is known as thepioneer of electric telegraph, which he demonstrated 1837.

The first telegraphlink took place between Washington and Baltimore in 1844.  Telegraph became a most important when it washeavily used during 2nd World War. After that, we have seen so many inventionsthat have occurred which have led to the present day digital communication weknow today. Examples of such inventions are the invention of the first computerby Charles Babbage, packet switching, ARPANET, advanced research projectsagency network. APRANET used packet switching to allow multiple computers tocommunicate on a single network internet.

 After that, TCP/IP was developed. APRANET adoptedthe TCP/IP protocol and from there, researchers began to assemble these networkconcepts that eventually became the modern internet we know today. Tim Berners-Lee took it a step further when he invented the WorldWide Web (WWW) in 1990. The web gave way for people to access information ordata online using websites and hyperlinks. In 1991, the Global System forMobile communication, GSM was developed to describe the protocols forsecond-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices. After thisinvention, we can see the accelerated development on networks generation and networksapplication. Today, there are varieties of devices that have been createdaround the world that are used in high-speed networks communication. Thesedevices vary from hubs switches routers bridges and so on.

Without them networkor communication will seize from happening. FIG 1:NetworkNetworkcan be referred to computers or other nodes working together over a network.Their main aim is to send, protect and receive messages, packets and so on. Networkingis the third layer in the OSI Model AFTERphysical and data link layers and BEFOREtransport, session, presentation and application layers.

A network caneither be a wired network or a wireless network. In a wired network, NetworkEngineers use cables such as coaxial cable, twisted pair and optical fiber totransmit data while in the wireless network, Engineers use microwave satelliteand Wi-Fi signals to transmit data. Whichever type of connection that is usedis based on the needs and budget of the individual that is needThefour main types of networking are LAN, Local Area Network. WAN, Wide AreaNetwork, MAN, Metropolitan Area Network and PAN, Personal Area NetworkLANcan be described as a type of network that involves a group of computers ornodes that all belong to an organization and which are connected within a smallgeographic area using a network most time the time of network used in this isthe wired network that is Ethernet.WAN isa type of network that links a number of LANs to one another over biggeographical distances. Also, can have dedicated high-speed connections betweengeographic locations.

or we can say any of multiple LAN connected together. FIG 2: WAN ConnectionMAN is a type of network that connect multiple geographically nearby LANs to oneanother at high speeds. A MAN gives way for two remote nodes to communicate asif they were part of the same local area network. A MAN is made fromswitches or routers connected to one another with high-speed links which isusually fiber optic cables.

PAN is a type of network that involves thetransmission of data amongst devices such as computers, mobile phones, tabletsand so onFIG 3: PAN ConnectionNetwork topologySo, we have spoken about networking and thetypes now we want to discuss about network topology. Network topology cansimply be described or referred to as the way or position all nodes in anetwork are placed and connected in order for them to transmit amongst eachother.  The network topology can also beseen as the layout or organizational hierarchy of interconnected nodes of acomputer network.

The difference in network topologies can affect throughput,but the reliability is often more critical. Fundamental layout of a network, to describes the path or paths between any twopoints in the network. Affects availability, speed, traffic and the congestion.1-    The Logical topology. To operational relationship between various of networkcomponents2-    The Physical topology. It’s actual layout of the network wiring Bus topologyEach node is tapped to the bus, it’s”broadcasts” a message that travels along the bus.

Every node connected to thatbus receives the message. Transmissions travel entire medium (both directions).The termination is required at ends to prevent reflection by absorbing signals.The downside of this network is that, if there is a problem with the main cable,the entire network shuts down. This type of network topology is not verypopular as there are other better network topologies

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