Abstract: user. According to Norton, “over the last

Topic: BusinessAccounting
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Last updated: August 29, 2019

Abstract:The revolution in information technologies has changedsociety fundamentally and will probably continue to do so in the foreseeablefuture.

These developments have given rise to unprecedented economic and socialchanges, but they also have a dark side: the emergence of new types of crime aswell as the commission of traditional crimes by means of new technologies.Moreover, the consequences of criminal behavior can be more far-reaching thanbefore because they are not restricted by geographical limitations or nationalboundaries. Along with encouraging the use of Information and Communicationtechnologies from their inception, countries have been looking at ways tocounteract the negatives simultaneously. Technical measures to protect computersystems are being implemented along with legal measures to prevent and detercriminal behavior.Introduction:Inour modern technology-driven age, keeping our personal information private isb-becoming more difficult. The truth is, highly classified details are becomingmore available to public -databases, because we are more interconnected thanever. Our data is available for almost anyone to sift –through due to thisinterconnectivity. This creates a negative stigma that the use of technology isdangerous because practically anyone can access one’s private information for aprice.

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Technology continues to promise to ease our daily lives; however, thereare dangers of using technology. One of the main dangers of using technology isthe threat of cybercrimes.                       Common internet users maybe unaware of cybercrimes, let alone what to do if they fall victim of cyber-attacks.Many innocent individuals fall victim to cybercrimes around the world,especially since technology is evolving at a rapid pace. Cybercrimes are anycrimes that cause harm to another individual using a computer and a network.Cybercrimes can occur by issues surrounding penetration of privacy andconfidentiality.

When privacy and confidential information is lost orinterrupted by unlawfully individuals, it gives way to high profile crimes suchas hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage, financial theft, copyrightinfringement, spamming, cyber warfare and many more crimes which occur acrossborders. Cybercrimes can happen to anyone once their information is breach byan unlawful user.                       According to Norton,”over the last 18 months, an ominous change has swept across the internet. Thethreat landscape once dominated by the worms and viruses unleashed byirresponsible hackers is now ruled by a new breed of cybercriminals. Cybercrimeis motivated by fraud, typified by the bogus emails sent by”phishers” that aim to steal personal information” (Cybercrime 2011)Cybercrimes are responsible for the success of their respective criminal assetsand the downfall of many companies and personal entities.                        Cybercrimescreateanoverwhelming task for law enforcement bureaus since they are extremelytechnological crimes.

Law enforcement organizations must have individualstrained in computer disciplines and computer forensics in order to accuratelyinvestigate computer crimes or cybercrimes that have been committed.  Additionally, many states must modernize andgenerate legislation, which disallows cybercrimes and outlines suitablepenalties for those crimes.  Cybercrimeswill likely become more frequent with the arrival of advance technologies.  It is important that civilians, lawofficials, and other associates of the justice system are well-informed aboutcybercrimes in order to diminish the threat that theycause. (SECTION 1)”Cyber Laws in Pakistan”n  There are different laws,promulgated in Pakistan.

n  These laws not only deal withcrime of Internetn  These deal with all dimensionsrelated to computer & networks.n  Two of them are most known.n  They are:q  Electronic TransactionOrdinance 2002q  Electronic / Cyber Crime Bill2007 “Electronic TransactionOrdinance 2002″n  Overviewq  The Electronic TransactionsOrdinance (ETO), 2002, was the first IT-relevant legislation created bynational lawmakers.q  A first step and a solidfoundation for legal sanctity and protection for Pakistani e-Commerce locallyand globally.

q  Laid the foundation forcomprehensive Legal Infrastructure.q  It is heavily taken fromforeign law related to cybercrime. “Pre-ETO 2002″n  No recognition of electronicdocumentationn  No recognition of electronicrecordsn  No recognition of evidentialbasis of documents/recordsn  Failure to authenticate oridentify digital or electronic signatures or forms of authenticationn  No online transaction could belegally bindingn  Electronic Data & ForensicEvidence not covered. No Rulesn  Sectionsn  There are 43 sections in thisordinancen  It deals with following 8 mainareas relating to e-Commerce.n  Recognition of ElectronicDocumentsn  Electronic Communicationsn  Digital Signature regime andits evidential consequencesn  Web Site & Digital Signatures Certification Providersn  Stamp Dutyn  Attestation, notarization,certified copiesn  Jurisdictionn  Offencesn  Important Sections are:n  36. Violation of privacyinformationn  gains or attempts to gainaccessn  to any information system withor without intentn  to acquire the informationn  Gain Knowledgen  Imprisonment 7 yearsn  Fine Rs. 1 millionn  38.

Offences to be non-bailable, compoundable and cognizablen  All offences under thisOrdinance shall be non-bail able, compoundable and cognizable.n  39. Prosecution and trial ofoffences.n  No Court inferior to the Courtof Sessions shall try any offence under this Ordinance.n  Electronic Documentation recognizedn  Electronic & Digital formsof authentication & identification given legal sanctityn  Messages through email, fax,mobile phones, Plastic Cards, Online recognized. “Electronic/Cyber Crime Bill2007″”Overview”n  “Prevention of ElectronicCrimes Ordinance, 2007? is in force nown  It was promulgated by thePresident of Pakistan on the 31st December 2007n  The bill deals with theelectronic crimes included:q  Cyber terrorismq  Data damageq  Electronic fraudq  Electronic forgeryq  Unauthorized access to codeq  Cyber stalkingq  Cyber Spamming/spoofing”Electronic/Cyber Crime Bill2007″n  It offers penalties rangingfrom six months imprisonment to capital punishment for 17 types of cyber crimesn  It will apply to every personwho commits an offence, irrespective of his nationality or citizenship.

n  It gives exclusive powers tothe Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) to investigate and charge cases againstsuch crimes. “Punishments”n  Under this law there aredefined punishment for the offence.n  Every respective offence underthis law has its distinctive punishment which can be imprisonment or fine.  Offence Imprisonment (years) Fine Criminal Access 3 3 Lac Criminal Data Access 3 3 Lac Data Damage 3 3 Lac System Damage 3 3 Lac Electronic Fraud 7 7 Lac Electronic Forgery 7 7 Lac Misuse of Device 3 3 Lac Unauthorized access to code 3 3 Lac Malicious code 5 5 Lac Defamation 5 5 Lac Cyber stalking 3 3 Lac Cyber Spamming 6 months 50,000 Spoofing 3 3 Lac Pornography 10 —– Cyber terrorism Life 10 Million   “Sections”n  Data Damage:q  Whoever withintent to illegal gain or cause harm to the public or any person, damages anydata, shall come under this section.n  Punishment:q  3 yearsq  3 Lac”Electronic/Cyber Crime Bill 2007″n  Electronicfraud:q  People forillegal gain get in the way or use any data, electronic system or device orwith intent to deceive any person, which act or omissions is likely to causedamage or harm.n  Punishment:q  7 yearsq  7 Lacn  Maliciouscode:q  Whoeverwillfully writes, offers, makes available, distributes or transmits maliciouscode through an electronic system or device, with intent to cause harm to anyelectronic system or resulting in the theft or loss of data commits the offenceof malicious code.  n  Punishment:q  5 yearsq  5 Lacn  Cyberstalking: q  Whoever withintent to harass any person uses computer, computer network, internet, or anyother similar means of communication to communicate obscene, vulgar, profane,lewd, lascivious, or indecent language, picture or image?q  Make anysuggestion or proposal of an obscene natureq  Threaten anyillegal or immoral actq  Take ordistribute pictures or photographs of any person without his consent orknowledgeq  Commits theoffence of cyber stalking.q  3 Yearsq  3 Lacn  Spamming:q  Whoevertransmits harmful, fraudulent, misleading,q  illegal orunsolicited electronic messages in bulk to any personq  without theexpress permission of the recipient,q  Involves infalsified online user account registration or falsified domain nameregistration for commercial purpose commits the offence of spamming.

n  Punishment:q  6 monthq  50,000 n  Spoofing:q  Whoeverestablishes a website, or sends an electronic message with a counterfeit sourceintended to be believed by the recipient or visitor or its electronic system tobe an authentic sourceq  with intent togain unauthorized access or obtain valuable informationq  Later,Information can be used for any lawful purposes commits the offence ofspoofing.q  3 Yearsq  3 Lacn  Cyberterrorism:q  Any person,group or organization who, with terroristic intent utilizes,q  accesses orcauses to be accessed a computer or computer network or electronic system ordevice or by any available means,q  Knowinglyengages in or attempts to engage in a terroristic act commits the offence ofcyber terrorism.n  Punishmentq  Whoever commitsthe offence of cyber terrorism and causes death of any person shall be punishedwith deathq  Or imprisonmentfor life, and with fineq  Otherwise heshall be punishable with imprisonment of ten years or with fine ten millionrupees  “Crimes Reported in Pakistan”n  A total of 57cases have been registered under the ETO 2002 in the years 2005 & 2006. Offences 2006 2005 Total IPR Crimes 14 20 34 Spurious Drugs 37 30 67 Cyber Crimes 33 24 57 Counterfeit Currencies 7 2 9 Others 105 148 253 Total: 196 224 420   Conclusion Cybercrimeswill always be an ongoing challenge despite the advancements being made bynumerous countries. Most countries have their own laws to combat cybercrimes,but some doesn’t have any new laws but solely relies on standard terrestriallaw to prosecute these crimes.

Along with outdated laws to combat cybercrime,there are still feeble penalties set in place to punish criminals, thus doingno major prevention of cybercrimes’ which affect the economy and people’ssocial lives on a large scale by those criminals. Consequently, there is adesperate need for countries on a global scale to come together and decide onwhat constitute a cybercrime, and develop ways in which to persecute criminalsacross different countries. Itis recommend that until sufficient legal actions can be put in place whereindividual countries and global ways of persecution criminals, self-protectionremains the first line of defense. The everyday individuals and businesses needto make sure they are educated on what to do in terms of prevent in becoming thenext victim of cybercrimes. This basic awareness can help prevent potentialcybercrimes against them.It is almost impossibleto reduce cybercrime from the cyber-space. Looking back on the many differentacts passed, history can be witness that no legislation has thrived in total eliminationof cybercrime from the world. The only possible step is to make people aware oftheir rights and duties and further making more punishable laws which is morestringent to check them.

Undoubtedly, the different Acts were and still are historicalsteps in the virtual world as we know it. This further suggests that there is aneed to convey modifications in the Information Technology Act so it can bemore effective to fight cybercrimes. Caution should be employed for thepro-legislation educational institutions that the requirements of the cyber lawsare not prepared so rigorous that it may delay the growth of the commerce anddemonstrate to be counter-productive to many. Remember, cybercriminals areevolving as well in terms of computer knowledge per technological advancementmade.Nevertheless,business should employ practices where their employees follow proper safetypractices to ensure that integrity and confidentially of stored information iskept at all times to combat cybercrimes. Safety practices like ensuring thatstaying off game sites on company time where viruses can be downloaded,forwarding chain emails, leaving workstation unattended or password sharingover virtual mediums should be prohibited. With all these safety practices implemented,it can be said that the safety of many clients stored information is optimal.

 References:1.     Vanlalnunsanga, M. (n.d.).

StatisticalReport on Cyber Crime. Retrieved 01 29, 2011, from Scribd: http://www.scribd.com/doc/19720457/Statistical-Report-of-Cyber-Crime2.     Wall, David S. “PolicingCybercrimes: Situating the Public Police in Networks of Security withinCyberspace.” Police Practice & Research 8.

2 (2007): 183-205. AcademicSearch Premier. EBSCO.

Web. 25 Jan. 2011.3.

     Wall, David S. “Cybercrime, mediaand insecurity: The shaping of public perceptions of cybercrime.” InternationalReview of Law, Computers & Technology 22.1/2 (2008): 45-63. AcademicSearch Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Jan.

2011.4.     Hansen, Brian, and Adriel Bettelheim.”Cybercrime: Congress Addresses the Breach In Online Security.” CQWeekly 60.26 (2002): 1761. Academic Search Premier.

EBSCO. Web. 15Jan. 2011.5.

     National White Collar Crime Center.”IC3 2008 Internet Fraud Report.” Retrieved 01 29, 2011, from Scribd:http://www.

ic3.gov/media/annualreport/2008_IC3Report.pdf6.     Coale, John C. “Fightingcybercrime.

” Military Review 78.2 (1998): 77. Academic SearchPremier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Jan.

2011.7.     Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved 02 04, 2011, fromBJS:http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.

gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=418.      http://www.

brighthub.com/internet/security-privacy/articles/65042.aspx9.      http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2007/08/15/cost_of_data_breach_at_tjx_soars_to_256m/10.  http://www.securityweek.

com/wikileaks-under-denial-service-attack-ddos11.  http://crimesatcyber.blogspot.com/feeds/posts/default?orderby=updated12.


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