According to Castells, the three forms of identity-building are legitimizing identity, resistance identity and project identity. Legitimizing identity is when an organization, institution or governing body, that has authority, makes certain identity traits officially recognize in society. This reproduces the power relations within society.
National citizenship is a key category for identity that gives certain rights to citizens but not non citizens. Legitimizing identity produces a civil society because of the inclusion and exclusion practice it uses to legitimize individuals position within a social context. A civil society reinforces political identity that exists because of the structural domination that institutions and organizes social actors interact.
Resistance identity is promoted by actors who used to be in positions of uncontested power. Their positions have thus been devalued and this creates a sense of marginalization that results in a loss of power of the group or actors. To survive, they resist social change or the change that differs from those permeating the institutions of society. This is evident from religious fundamentalist groups. Resistance identity forms communes, or communities and these communities collectively resist against otherwise unbearable oppression. Due to how these oppressed identities used to be clearly defined by history, geography, or biology, these boundaries of resistance have been easier to legitimize.Project identity are formed when social structure is totally transformed with the creation of new identities.
Project identities changes an individual’s position in society. Feminist movements are examples of project identity formation. According to feminist movements, new identities in the form of sexuality, reproduction, and personality are starting to question the traditional identities of women.
Patriarchy, on which has been historically accept and known, is being challenged with the advent of women’s identity and rights.