Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Dominick Farmer
Last updated: October 10, 2019
Ahmad Obaid ID: 200921074 Karishma Khan ID: 200921075 Nashmia Rashid ID: 200921078 Abdulla Barahim ID: 200921080 Airline Operations, Semester 2, 2010/11 For: Dr. Baba Yerra Due Date: 30 May 2011 Topic: Research Project Title: Comparative Study and Analysis of FAR and CAR regulations Table of Contents 1. Introduction| 3| 2. Methodology| 4| 3. Findings| 5| 3.
1. Operations Specifications| 5| 3. 2. Airline Organization: Required Management Positions| 6| 3. 3.
Operating Manual| 9| 3. 3. 1. Operations Manual Requirements under FAR 121| 9| 3. 3. 2. Operations Manual Requirements under GCAA (CAAP 8)Mandatory content| 9| 3. .
3. Comparison between GCAA and FAA| 10| 3. 4. FAR 121 Subpart M compared with CAR| 11| 3. 4. 1.
Airman Certificate| 11| 3. 4. 2. FAR 121. 383(c) The age 60 rule | 11| 3.
4. 3. FAR 121. 385 – Composition of flight crew & CAR Subpart N CAR-OPS 1. 940. | 11| 3. 4. 4.
FAR 121. 391 & CAR Subpart O CAR–OPS 1. 990- Cabin Crew| 12| 3. 5. Flight and Duty Time Limitations| 12| 3.
5. 1. Cabin Crew Requirements| 13| 3. 6. Airplane Performance and Operating Limitations| 14| 3. 6.
1. Takeoff Limitations| 14| 3. 6.
2. En-route Limitations: One engine Inoperative| 15| 3. 6.
3.En-route Limitations: Two engines Inoperative| 16| 3. 6. 4.
Landing Limitations: Destination and Alternate Airports| 16| 4. References| 18| 1. Introduction Aviation industry is a part of a dynamic environment.
Like all other industries and sectors it is bound by certain rules which are mandatory. Every country has a particular authority which regulates the civil aviation. FAA of 1967 is a U. S government agency with authority to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in the U. S.
The Federal Aviation Regulations are rules prescribed by the FAA governing all aviation activities in the United States.The FARs are part of Title 14 of the CFR. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, and protection from unnecessary risk. Similarly the agency in the U. A. E which regulates all facets of civil aviation is the General Civil Aviation Authority. It was created in 1996 to regulate Civil Aviation and provide safe aviation services all over the world. GCAA promulgated the regulations to implement the provisions of the Civil Aviation Law No.
20 known as the Civil Aviation Regulations. This assignment compares the FAR with CAR to conduct an analysis about the differences between the regulations.The findings section will commence with the introduction of Operations Specifications, a document created by FAA/GCAA and the carrier wherein the carrier will specifically explain how it will conduct operations of its aircraft in accord with FARs/CARs. This assignment will then move on discussing the differences between the required management positions, as well as the operating manuals. In addition, we will be discussing the requirements of crew members in FARs and CARs.
Moreover, the assignment will then analyze the differences between the CAR flight limitations compared to FAR.These analyses will eventually show the differences between the CAR regulations and rules GCAA sets for air carriers as compared to FAR regulations. 2.
Methodology All data incorporated into the text is based solely on secondary research. Websites of high-profile organizations such as GCAA and FAA helped in developing understanding and analysis of the topic. Holt and Poynor’s book Air Carrier Operations has been a great equipment for the completion of this assignment. 3. Findings 3. 1 Operations Specifications Every country’s aviation agency has an operations specifications document.FAA Ops Specs is divided in to 5 sections as opposed to GCAA’s 13 sections.
Below is the comparison of FAA and GCAA ops specs. FAA| GCAA| A-General| | Issuance and Applicability| * | * | | Definitions and Abbreviations| * | * | | Airplane Authorizations| * | * | Part A-Authorized Aircraft: MFGPart G-Authorized Aircraft- Aircraft Reg. | Exemptions and Deviations | * | | | Management Personnel| * | | | Other designated persons| * | * | Part R-Personnel accepted by AuthorityPart S-Point of contact| Operational Control | * | * | | Airport Aeronautical Data| * | | |Aeronautical Weather Data| * | * | Part C-All Weather Operations| Ops during ground icing and de-icing| * | | | Approved Carry-on Baggage Program| * | | | Part 121 Domestic Operations| * | | | LAHSO Operations| * | | | Supplemental Operations| * | | | Outsourced training facilities| * | | | CAAP8 has only a few similarities with FAR119. 49 Part A, and is distributed in different sections. UAE doesn’t have domestic operations so this doesn’t have to be included in Ops Specs. FAA| GCAA| B-Enroute Authorizations, Limitations, and Provisions| |Areas of En route operations| | | | IFR Ops – Class I and II navigation| * | | | VFR| * | * | | Enroute limitations and provisions| * | | | ATC standards for Class 1 and 2| * | | | RVSM| | * | Part F-Communication Navigation and surveillance| IFR Class1 Enroute navigation using Area Navigation Systems| | | | VOR/DME| * | * | Part E-Performance Based Navigation| RNAV| * | * | Part D-Approach1. 2| GPS| * | * | Part D-Approach1.
2| FMCS| * | | | INS| * | | | ASR| | * | Part D-Approach2| ADF/NDB| | * | Part D-Approach2|Authorized to conduct Class2 Navigation using LRNS| * | | | Extended Overwater Operations| * | | | Authorized Areas of Enroute Ops, Limitations, and Provisions| * | * | Part H-Destinations | Part B of GCAA Ops Specs on the other hand includes: Types of Operations * Passengers * Cargo * Aerial operations for Photo flight or object dropping * External Load dedicated to Helicopter or underslung operations * Emergency Medical Services FAA| GCAA| C-Airplane Terminal Instrument Approach Procedures and Airport Authorizations and Limitations| | Terminal Instrument Procedures| * | | |Basic Instrument Approach Procedure Authorizations| * | * | Part D-Approach| Straight-in CAT1 Approach Procedures using and other than ILS, MLS, GPS, IFR Landing Minimums| * | * | Part C-AWOPart D-Approach(Precision and Non-precision)| IFR landing, weather and take off minimums| * | | | RNAV-area navigation| * | * | Part D-Approach1. 2| AFGS| * | | | IFR Approach- vertical navigation| * | | | Circle-to-Land Approach Maneuver| * | * | Part D-Approach3| Terminal VFR| * | | | Part C of GCAA Ops Specs includes: Precision approach category (CAT I, II, IIIA, IIIB or IIIC).Only the minimum RVR in meters and decision height in feet will be display. FAA| GCAA| D-Aircraft Maintenance| | CAMP| * | * | Part R3-Personnel accepted byAuthority (Maintenance System)| Ferry Flights| * | | | Minimum equipment list| * | * | | Other Organization – substantial maintenance| * | | | Part D of GCAA’s Ops Specs includes: Approach 1. Precision- ILS, RNAV(GNSS/GPS) 2. Non-precision 3. Circling Part L of GCAA’s Ops Specs corresponds to FAR’s Ops Specs Part D Maintenance Aircraft must be maintained airworthy in accordance with the GCAA approved MME or MOE.Part E of FAA’s Ops Specs is Weight and Balance Control Procedures.
This is not included in GCAA’s Ops Specs. From safety perspective, this element should be given consideration as it is necessary to know the weight of the loaded aircraft prior to take-off. Part E of GCAA’s Ops Specs include Performance Based Navigation. Following are GCAA’s added value to FAA: Part FCommunication, Navigation and Surveillance (RVSM, ETOPS, MNPS, Polar Operations) Part GAuthorized Aircraft Part HDestinations (ICAO Aerodrome Designators (Scheduled, Nonscheduled/Charter operations)Part MDestinations (ICAO Aerodrome Designators) Part POther Approval (Electronic Flight Bag, Head Up Display / Head Up Guidance System, Dangerous Goods) Part R Personnel accepted by Authority 3. 2. Airline Organization: Required Management Positions This section lists out the similarities and differences in the management positions required by FAR and CAR. FAA Part 121 and 135 requirements found in FAR119. 65 mandate 5 management positions for Part121 and 3 management positions for Part135 air carrier.
Part 121 and 135 1. Director of operations 2. Chief Pilot 3.Director of maintenance Part 121 4. Chief Inspector 5.
Director of safety GCAA The nominated posts include: 1. Flight Operations- to serve as Director of Operations a person * should hold a valid Flight Crew License * Airline Transport Pilot’s License (airplanes certificated with a minimum of 2 pilots), Commercial Transport Pilot’s License (airplanes certificated with a minimum of 1 pilot). 2. Maintenance System- the nominated post holder should possess * Relevant engineering degree * thorough familiarity with MME * Knowledge of the relevant type(s) of aircraft. 3.Crew Training- Duty as a check pilot may include aircraft, simulator, line or base checking * should have knowledge of the AOC/ POC holder’s crew training concept for Flight Crew and for Cabin Crew when relevant 4. Ground Operations- The nominated postholder should have a thorough knowledge of the AOC/Authorization holder’s ground operations concept. 5.
Aviation Security- The nominated postholder should have a thorough knowledge of the * National Civil Aviation Security Programme, * Operator’s security programme, * Security training requirements and threat assessment. 6. Quality Assurance- divided into 2 parts: Operations * Maintenance Unlike FAR Management positions where work experience differs according to the position, CAR-Ops 1 requires for all management positions five years relevant work experience of which at least two years should be from the aeronautical industry in an appropriate position. 3. 3. Operating Manual The following is a summarized comparative study on the Operating Manuals of FAR 121 and GCAA (CAAP 8).
Firstly, it explains the Operating manual requirement under FAR 121. Secondly, the summary explains (with details) the different parts of operating manual and their requirements under GCAA.These explanations will highlight the differences between the two.
It is concluded by a comparison between the manuals under FAR and GCAA to show the similarities between them as well. 3. 3. 1. Operations Manual Requirements under FAR121 FAR 121. 133 sets forth the specific form the manuals must take. They must contain, as a minimum, the following major provisions: a) Flight Operations Manual b) Ground Operations Manual c) Management Policy and Procedures It is mandatory that the content of these manuals contain instructions and information that facilitates operations manual personnel.
. 3. 2 Operations Manual Requirements under GCAA (CAAP 8)Mandatory content A high degree of standardization of operation Manuals will lead to improved flight safety, Under CAR–OPS 1. 1045, it is mandatory for the operational manual to contain: Part A. General/Basic This part shall comprise all non type-related operational policies, instructions and procedures needed for a safe operation.
This part mandates that: i) Applicant should not deviate from the numbering system used in order to facilitate comparability and usability of operation manual personnel.Those sections that may not be applicable due to its nature of operation, applicant still maintains the numbering system and insert ‘Not applicable’ or ‘intentionally blank’ where appropriate. ii) The content in the operation manual cannot be changed without the GCAA’s consent. But, certain additional materials used for the operator’s guidance does not require any approval. iii) A copy of the manual shall be available to the crewmembers and a full electronic copy will be provided to and retained by the GCAA.
Part B. Aero plane Operating MattersThis part shall comprise all type-related instructions and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) needed for a safe operation. It shall take account of any differences between types, variants or individual aero planes used by the operator. The manual must contain information and instructions relating to: (a) The identification of the aircraft. (b) The operating procedures and limitations of the aircraft.
(c) The performance and loading of the aircraft. (d) Emergency and supplementary procedures. Part C.
Route and Aerodrome Instructions and InformationThis part shall comprise all instructions and information about the routes and aerodrome- the area of operation. For Part C, material produced by the applicant may be supplemented with or substituted by applicant Route Guide material produced by a specialised professional company. Part D. Training This part shall comprise all training instructions for personnel required for a safe operation. (b)An operator shall ensure that the contents of the Operations Manual are in accordance with Appendix 1 to CAR–OPS 1. 1045 and relevant to the area and type of operation. c)An operator shall ensure that the detailed structure of the Operations Manual is acceptable to the Authority. The manual may be a standalone document or incorporated within an operations manual, depending on the size and complexity of the operation.
Dispatcher training is an exception in Part D, as this training is a part of dispatch manual. 3. 3. 3.
Comparison between GCAA and FAA FAA is flexible in the organization of Air Carrier’s Manuals. Similarly, GCAA also allows flexibility in the organization of Operation Manuals that are required for submission during the formal meeting: a) Cabin / Flight Dispatch/ Ground Operations Manuals ) Dangerous Goods Emergency Response Guide and Training Courses c) Aircraft Search Procedure Checklist d) Maintenance Manuals 3. 4.
FAR 121 Subpart M compared with CAR 3. 4. 1. Airman Certificate Positions| FAA| GCAA| Cockpit crewmembers| * | * | Dispatchers| * | * | Mechanics (Flight & Aircraft Maintenance Engineers)| * | * | Flight Attendants| | * | One possible reason for the GCCA to be stricter in terms of certification for flight attendants is because the U. A. E. and the Middle East region is so diverse in its culture and population.There are many other different nationalities.
Also, English is not the native language. Thus, they want to make sure the flight attendants are well versed in English and other languages and may hence comprehend the course for their job and perform their job better. 3.
4. 2. FAR 121. 383(c) The age 60 rule It prohibits the use of pilots in Part 121 operations after they reach the age of 60 years old. Under CAR Part II, Chapter 1, 1. 17 the following limitation of privileges of pilot license holders aged 60 years or more apply with immediate effect: (a) Age 60-64.The holder of a pilot license who has attained the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport operations except; i.
As a member of a multi-pilot crew; and ii. Such holder is the only pilot in the flight crew who has attained age 60. (b) Age 65. The holder of a pilot license who has attained the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport operations or private operations unless otherwise specified by the Authority. 3.
4. 3. FAR 121.
385 – Composition of flight crew & CAR Subpart N CAR-OPS 1. 940.The number of flight crews required to be onboard is almost similar in FAR 121. 385 and CAR Subpart N CAR-OPS 1. 940.
FAR 121. 385 (a) mandates that a certificate holder should operate an airplane with a minimum number of flight crew as specified in the airworthiness certificate or the AFM. CAR–OPS 1. 940 a. 1 also requires the operator to follow the same procedure, the difference being minimum number of flight crew specified in AFM only. While FAR 121.
385(c) states that the minimum pilot crew is two pilots and the certificate holder shall designate one pilot as PIC and the other second in command, CAR–OPS 1. 40 a. 9 states that Crew composition for VFR day flight may be performed by a single pilot. From this perspective, the GCAA rules for composition of flight crew are less stringent. Flight Engineer The rules for FE are similar in both FAR 121.
385(d) CAR–OPS 1. 940 a. 6. Both state that if FE is required, then one crew member other than FE should hold a Flight Engineer’s license or be qualified to provide emergency performance of the flight engineer’s functions for the safe completion of the flight, acceptable to Authority.Flight Navigator FAR 121. 389 provides two alternatives for operating. A company may use a navigator or a specialized navigation equipment whereas CAR–OPS 1. 940 a.
8 states that The flight crew include minimum one member who holds a flight navigator license in all operations where, as determined by the Authority, navigation necessary for the safe conduct of the flight cannot be accomplished by the pilots. GCAA has added the following in the section: Minimum flight crew for operations under IFR or at night An operator shall ensure that: 1) For all turbo-propeller aeroplanes with a maximum passenger seats of over 9 and for all turbojet aeroplanes, the minimum flight crew is 2 pilots; or (2) Aeroplanes other than those covered above are operated by a single pilot provided that the requirements of Appendix 2 to CAR–OPS 1. 940 are satisfied (which states that pilot shall have atleast 50 hours flight time on an aeroplane under IFR of which 10 hours is PIC While CAR allows 50 hours flight time minimum, FAR 135. 105(a) requires that the PIC must have at least 100 hours PIC time in the model of aircraft to be flown.Thus from safety perspective GCAA needs to make stricter regulations because 50 hours flight time is quite less for a pilot to conduct solo flights. 3. 4.
4. FAR 121. 391 ; CAR Subpart O CAR–OPS 1. 990- Cabin Crew The rules for composition of flight attendants are exactly same in both the countries- 1. Seating configuration of more than 19 seats1 cabin crew aboard the aircraft. 2.
One cabin crew member required for every 50 passenger seats installed on the same deck of the aeroplane 3. Every airline must conduct emergency evacuation demonstration of 90 seconds. . 5. Flight and Duty Time Limitations FAA has divided the flight and duty limitations of crew members according to Part 121 and Part 135 operations, whereas under GCAA’s CAR Ops 1 Subpart Q, these limitations are stated for UAE registered aeroplanes, as well as foreign registered aeroplanes operated under a UAE AOC. In particular; (a) Commercial Air Transport operations, or operations operated by an air transport undertaking. (b) Private use operations of turbo-jet and turbo-propeller aeroplanes FAA (FAR Flag Operations)| GCAA|Time Period| Maximum Flight Hours| Time Period| Maximum Flight Hours| 12 calendar months| 1000| 12 calendar months| 900| 1 calendar month| 100| 28 consecutive days| 100| 7 consecutive calendar days| 32| 1 week| 55| Maximum cumulative duty hours for aircrew of an aeroplane| Time Period| Maximum Flight Hours| Time Period| Maximum Flight Hours| 90 consecutive days | 350| 2 weeks| 95| 30 consecutive days| 120| 4 weeks| 190| Maximum Time “On Duty” FAA requires pilots to ‘look back’ 24 hours and find at least an 8 hour rest period.
in 7 rule present in both regulations requiring the pilot to have 1 day free from all duty in each 7 day period. Rest Period FAA * Minimum- 8 hours If pilot exceeds 8 hours in a 24 consecutive hour period then the rest period is * Twice the scheduled flight time * No less than 8 hours In total flying more than 8 hours results in a rest period of 18 hours free from all duty GCAA The minimum rest period, which shall be provided before undertaking a flying duty period, shall be: * At least as long as the preceeding duty period, or 12 hours, Whichever is the greater 3. 5. 1. Cabin Crew Requirements For FAA, flight attendant duty time differs from that of flight crew, as it is the total time spent at ‘work’ between reporting and being released from duty. The duty limitation is 14 hours and 9 hours rest. For GCAA, the limitations, for cabin crew, and flight crew is similar, but with the following differences: * FDP can be 1 hour longer than that permitted for flight crew * Minimum rest periods can be 1 hour shorter than those required by the flight crewIn addition, GCAA requires that the maximum duty hours for cabin crew shall not exceed; * 60 hours in one week * 105 hours in any 2 consecutive weeks, and * 210 hours in any 4 consecutive weeks 3.
6. Airplane Performance and Operating Limitations This section compares the level of operational performance required of FAR 121 Subpart I Turbine engine powered aircraft and CAR-Ops1 Subpart G Performance Class A aircraft. Both the countries have similar regulations for this section. A brief summary is elucidated below.
Minimum performance requirements assuring safe aircraft operations are: . 6. 1. Takeoff Limitations Both FAR 121. 189 and CAR-Ops 1. 490 require an operator to not exceed the maximum takeoff mass specified in the Aeroplane Flight Manual for the pressure altitude and the ambient temperature existing at the time of departure. The difference is the reference of WAT limit chart in FAR and not in CAR.
For both FAR 121. 189 and CAR-Ops 1. 490, an operator must meet the following requirements when determining the maximum permitted take-off mass: * Accelerate/stop must occur on runway plus stopway. * Takeoff run must occur over runway only.
Takeoff distance must occur within runway and allowable clearway. i. Take-off Obstacle Clearance An operator shall ensure that the net take-off flight path clears all obstacles by a height: FAR 121. 189(d) 35ft vertically, 200ft horizontally within airport boundaries CAR-Ops 1. 495 35ft vertically, a horizontal distance of 90 m plus 0·125 x D, where D is the horizontal distance the aeroplane has travelled from the end of the take-off distance available or the end of the take-off distance if a turn is scheduled before the end of the take-off distance available.In performing max weight calculations for the flight path, an operator must take account of the following: * The ambient temperature * The runway surface condition and the type of runway surface * The runway slope in the direction of take-off; * Wind component at the time of take-off FAR 121. 189 also takes the airport elevation into consideration while CAR-Ops 1. 490 considers the pressure altitude at the aerodrome and the mass of the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run in addition to the above.
3. 6. 2. En-route Limitations: One engine InoperativeThe rules that an operator has to ensure in both the countries are exactly the same. Both FAR121. 191 and CAR-Ops 1. 500 require the aircraft to be operated at such a weight that for OEI performance, the operator is able to operate the aircraft safely to an alternate airport. This can be demonstrated in the following ways: * The gradient of the net flight path must be at least 1000ft above all terrain along the route within 5nm on either side of the intended track.
* The net flight path must have a positive gradient at 1500ft above the airport of intended emergency landing after the engine failure. The net flight path must permit the aeroplane to continue flight from the cruising altitude to an aerodrome where a landing can be made, the net flight path clearing vertically, by at least 2000 ft, all terrain and obstructions along the route within 5nm on either side of the intended track in accordance with the following: * The engine fails at the most critical point en route; * Account is taken of the effects of winds on the flight path; * The trained crew may jettison fuel and take precautions to assure safe rocedures * The alternate airport must meet the alternate weather minimums Addition in CAR When showing compliance with CAR–OPS 1. 500, an operator must increase the width margins from 5nm to 10nm if the navigational accuracy does not meet the 95% containment level. 3. 6.
3. En-route Limitations: Two engines Inoperative The regulations for this section are also similar in both the countries. There are two alternatives: 1.Both say that the operator having three or more engines can comply so long as there is no point on the route structure where the flight is 90 minutes away from the aerodrome. If not possible, then it may use a concept similar in nature to that of OEI operations. 2. The aircraft with the weight that allows it to fly from a point where the two engines failed simultaneously to an authorized aerodrome, must have a net flight path that clears vertically by at least 2000ft all terrain and obstructions along the route within 5nm on either side of the track.CAR-Ops 1.
505 also add that If the navigational accuracy does not meet 95% containment level, an operator must increase the width margin given above to 10nm. The performance is achieved under the following assumptions: 1. The two engines fail at the most critical point enroute where the aeroplane is more than 90 minutes. 2. The weight at the point of engine failure includes enough fuel to continue to airport, arrive at an altitude of 1500ft directly over the airport, and fly level for 15 minutes.
3.The trained crew may jettison fuel and take precautions to assure safe procedures. 3. 6. 4.
Landing Limitations: Destination and Alternate Airports The following is a summary of the rules under this provision. The airplane weight should not exceed that specified for the altitude and the ambient temperature expected for the estimated time of landing at the destination and alternate aerodrome. The aircraft’s weight must allow it to land from 50 ft above the threshold for turbo-jet powered airplanes, within 60% of the landing distance available (70% for turbo-props).In addition, CAR-Ops 1. 510 include provisions for instrument approaches * If the missed approach is greater than 2. 5%, then the climb gradient should be equal to greater than the missed approach gradient in the one-engine inoperative missed approach configuration and speed.
* With decision heights below 200 ft, landing mass of the aeroplane should allow a missed approach climb gradient, with the critical engine failed and with the speed and configuration used for go-around of at least 2·5%, or the published gradient, whichever is the greater. . References GCAA n. d, GCAA Civil Aviation Regulation, viewed 15 May 2011, ;http://www. gcaa. ae/en/epublication/pages/cars. aspx;. Flightsim Aviation Zone n.
d, FAA Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs, 14 CFR), viewed 14 May 2011, ;http://www. flightsimaviation. com/data/FARS/part_121. html;. Holt, MJ ; Poynor, PJ 2006, Air carrier operations, 3rd edn, Aviation Supplies ; Academics Inc, Newcastle.