Her faith was exemplary, and so was her love for children and her husband.Relevent poems include:”Before the Birth of One of Her Children””Verses Upon the Burning of Our House””In Honour of that High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth””The Author To Her Book”
His work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Calvinist theology and the Puritan heritage.His Personal Narrative is a Puritan autobiography that recounts his spiritual conversion.”The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect, over the fire, abhors you and is dreadfully provoked.”
Her poetry was praised by many of the leading figures of the American Revolution, including George Washington, who personally thanked her for a poem she wrote in his honor. However, this praise was not universal. For example, Thomas Jefferson was among the harshest critics of her poetry, writing “The heroes of the Dunciad are to her, as Hercules to the author of that poem.”Because many white people found it hard to believe that a black woman could be so intelligent as to write poetry, in 1772 Wheatley had to defend her literary ability in court. She was examined by a group of Boston luminaries including John Erving, Rev. Charles Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of Massachusetts, and his Lieutenant Governor Andrew Oliver.
They concluded that she had in fact written the poems ascribed to her and signed an attestation which was published in the preface to her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral published in Aldgate, London in 1773. The book was published in London because publishers in Boston had refused to publish the text. Phillis and her master’s son, Nathanial Wheatley, went to London, where Selina, Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth helped with the publication.Some critics cite Wheatley’s successful defense of her poetry in court and the publication of her book as the first official recognition of African American literature.Her works include:”An Elegy, Sacred to the Memory of the Great Divine, the Reverend and Learned Dr. Samuel Cooper, Who Departed This Life December 29, 1783″”To His Excellency George Washington”
You should be able, however, to associate the name Natty Bumppo with him.Excerpted from Wikipedia:The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, each featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as “Leatherstocking,” and by the Native Americans as “Pathfinder,” “Deerslayer,” or “Hawkeye.”.In an attempt to regain his popularity, Cooper returned to Leatherstocking with The Pathfinder (1840) and The Deerslayer (1841) where he portrayed, respectively, the hero’s early maturity and youth. Praising the books, most contemporary reviewers expressed a sense of relief at finding Cooper back in what they believed to be his natural element. But there is more to the considerable charm of these works than the simple pleasure of recognition, the delight of encountering a rejuvenated Natty Bummpo once more moving nimbly and fearlessly through the wilderness. For the embattled and bitter author of these novels was able to imbue them with a powerful yearning for an idealized America of the spirit, an Eden-like landscape where his hero, after a couple of brief brushes with love, could retreat to become one with nature.
escaped from slavery in Maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
Wrote “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself (1845)”: Cherishing the Declaration of Independence (which he regarded as a sacred document of sorts), Douglass throughout his life testified to the nation’s failure to live up to its founding ideals. Douglass excoriated the rise of lynching with the passion and vigor of his early writing, seeing this outbreak of violence against black people as a threat to that which he had devoted his life to achieving: a multiracial United States offering equal rights and justice for all. Douglass artistically shaped the facts of his life to underscore the particular truths to which he was committed at the moment of composition.
Some view him as a hypocrite who celebrated human liberty while defending Southerners’ rights to enslave black people; others regard him as a visionary Founding Father who, despite being influenced by the racist ideologies current in his day, gave the nation’s democratic ideals their most powerful written expression. Jefferson’s works play into the field of phrenology, which claimed that African Americans were less intelligent because of their smaller skull and brain size. He became more and more dependent upon his slaves and therefore supported slavery more and more.
Invoked the Declaration of Independence and the Bible to contest slavery. As Lincoln grew, he now added to the often biting satirical humor, and to the logic and natural grace of his earlier utterances, a resonance and wisdom that mark his emergence as a national political leader and as a master of language. Famous for: “A House Divided: Speech Delivered at Springfield, Illinois, at the Close of the Republican State Convention, June 16, 1858”–about the fact that slavery had to be eliminated immediately and not in degrees or simply contained (as he thought at first) because the U.S. was a “house divided” which “cannot stand”
As evidenced in his stories “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccinni’s Daughter” and all the novels, few writers of the mid-nineteenth century were more insightful about the damage patriarchal culture can do to women.
“Nature” and Transcendentalism: Nature is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson published anonymously in 1836. It is in this essay where the foundation of transcendentalism is put forth, a belief system that espouses a non-traditional vision of nature. Building on his early lectures, Emerson defines nature as an all-encompassing divine entity inherently known to us in our unfettered innocence, rather than as merely a component of a world ruled by a divine, separate being learned by us through passed-on teachings in our experience.Also famous for “Self-Reliance”In the essay he formulates his philosophy of self-reliance an essential part of which is to trust in one’s present thoughts and impressions rather than those of other people or of one’s past self. This culminates in the quote: “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.
“He stresses originality, believing in one’s own genius and living from within. From this springs the quote: “Envy is ignorance, imitation is suicide.”
Walden was written so that the stay appears to be a year, with expressed seasonal divisions. Thoreau called it an experiment in simple living.Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography, but a social critique of the Western World, with each chapter heralding some aspect of humanity that needed to be either renounced or praised. Along with his critique of the civilized world, Thoreau examines other issues afflicting man in society, ranging from economy (the first chapter of the book) and reading to solitude and higher laws. He also takes time to talk about the experience at Walden Pond itself, commenting on the animals and the way people treated him for living there, using those experiences to bring out his philosophical positions. This extended commentary on nature has often been interpreted as a strong statement to the natural religion that transcendentalists like Thoreau and Emerson were preaching.Civil DisobedienceCivil Disobedience is an essay by Henry David Thoreau. Published in 1849 under the title Resistance to Civil Government, it expressed Thoreau’s belief that people should not allow governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty both to avoid doing injustice directly and to avoid allowing their acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.
Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican-American War.One of the most famous quotes often mistakenly attributed to either Thomas Jefferson or Thomas Paine, “That government is best which governs least”, actually came from Thoreau in this essay.
The first edition of Leaves of Grass was self-published at Whitman’s expense in 1855, the same year Whitman’s father passed away. At this point, the collection consisted of 12 long, untitled poems. Both public and critical response was muted. A year later, the second edition, including a letter of congratulations from Ralph Waldo Emerson, was published. This edition contained an additional twenty poems.
Emerson had been calling for a new American poetry; in Leaves of Grass, he found it.During the American Civil War, Whitman cared for wounded soldiers in and around Washington, D.C. He often saw Abraham Lincoln in his travels around the city, and came to greatly admire the President.
Whitman’s poems “O Captain! My Captain!” (popularized in the 1989 movie Dead Poets Society) and “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomed” were influenced by his profound grief after Lincoln’s assassination in 1865.After the Civil War, Walt Whitman found a job as a clerk in the U.S.
Department of the Interior. However, when James Harlan, Secretary of the Interior, discovered that Whitman was the author of the “offensive” Leaves of Grass, he fired Whitman immediately.For many, Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson stand as the two giants of 19th-century American poetry. Whitman’s poetry seems more quintessentially American; the poet exposed common America and spoke with a distinctly American voice, stemming from a distinct American consciousness.
The power of Whitman’s poetry seems to come from the spontaneous sharing of high emotion he presented. American poets in the 20th century (and now, the 21st) must come to terms with Whitman’s voice, insofar as it essentially defined democratic America in poetic language. Whitman utilized creative repetition to produce a hypnotic quality that creates the force in his poetry, inspiring as it informs. Thus, his poetry is best read aloud to experience the full message. Famous for “song of myself’
Famous for Moby Dick, Billy Bud (kid gets hanged for causing a mutiny… championed as promoting homosexual love), and “Bartleby the Scribner” (guy repeats the phrase ‘I would prefer not to’). Significance of Moby Dick: His book increasingly became about whaling and textuality–about whales in the ocean and whales in books–raising bold questions about narrative, interpretation, and (as consistent with his sense of the book as a “Gospels”) God and the meaning of the universe. He wanted to reveal dark, ‘Shakespearean’ truths about human nature and the universe that, ‘in this world of lies,’ can be told only ‘covertly’ and ‘by snatches.’ Pierre dealt with romantic, ethical, and intellectual perplexities attending the main character.
Benito Cereno addressed some of the most vexing issues of antebellum culture: racial and gender inequities, the social transformations brought about by the rise of industrial capitalism, and the problem of slavery. AND Billy Bud, a final study of the tense and ambiguous conflicts between the individual and the authority.
She uses simple words of love, life, nature and death and immortality, sometimes with deep meanings written during her social and her reclusive years, United States poet noted for her mystical and unrhymed poems.Dickinson’s poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends.
Used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the “Gilded Age”. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.
It was not a commercial success, though it was praised by several critics of the time.This was followed by The Red Badge of Courage 1895, a powerful tale of the American Civil War. The book won international acclaim for its realism and psychological depth in telling the story of a young soldier facing the horrors and triumphs of war for the first time. Crane never experienced battle personally, but conducted interviews with a number of veterans, some of whom may have suffered from what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder. Because his depiction of the psychological as well as military aspect of war was so accurate, he was hired by a number of newspapers as a correspondent during the Greco-Turkish 1897 and Spanish-American wars 1898.
In 1896 the boat in which he accompanied an American expedition to Cuba was wrecked, leaving Crane adrift for fourteen days. A result of the incident was Crane’s development of tuberculosis, which would eventually become fatal. He recounted these experiences in The Open Boat and Other Tales 1898.
In 1897, Crane settled in England, where he befriended writers Joseph Conrad and Henry James. Shortly before his death, he released Whilomville Stories 1900, the most commercially successful of the twelve books he wrote. Crane died of tuberculosis, aged only 28, in Badenweiler, Germany.
Her second novel was Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, another anti-slavery novel.When Stowe met Abraham Lincoln in 1862 (during the Civil War), he allegedly greeted her, “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!”
Most of what has been written about Kate Chopin since 1969 is feminist in nature or is focused on women’s positions in society.
“; Famous for his long, involute syntax. He is regarded as one of the key figures of 19th-century literary realism.He is primarily known for the series of novels in which he portrays the encounter of Americans with Europe and Europeans. His method of writing from the point of view of a character within a tale allows him to explore issues related to consciousness and perception, and his style in later works has been compared to impressionist painting.James contributed significantly to literary criticism, particularly in his insistence that writers be allowed the greatest possible freedom in presenting their view of the world.
James claimed that a text must first and foremost be realistic and contain a representation of life that is recognisable to its readers. Good novels, to James, show life in action and are, most importantly, interesting. The concept of a good or bad novel is judged solely upon whether the author is good or bad. His imaginative use of point of view, interior monologue and possibly unreliable narrators in his own novels and tales brought a new depth and interest to narrative fiction.
Famous for: The Ambassadors, The Beast in the Jungle, The Golden Bowl, The Portrait of a Lady, The Aspen Papers, Daisy Miller, The Turn of the Screw, and the Art of FictionPortrait of a lady: First published in 1881. It is the story of a young female American, Isabel Archer, who inherits a large amount of money, which left her to the Machiavellan schemings of two European expatriates. Like many of James’ novels, it is set mostly in Europe, notably Italy.