American Literature Authors

Bartolome de las Casas (1490-1558)
“Protector of the Indians”

*Memorial de Remedios Para las Indias
*History of the Indies
*A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1558)
Spanish explorer of the New World

*La Relacion (The Account/Narrative) later called “Shipwrecks”
*The Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

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Bernal Diaz de Castillo (1492-1584)
A conquistador and appointed governor of Santiago de los Caballeros (Guatemala)

*The True History of the Conquest of New Spain
*True History

Thomas Morton (1575-1647)
Early American colonist from England. Was a lawyer, writer, and social reformer

*New English Cannan

John Smith (1580-1631)
Born in England and joined the Virginia Company. Became councilman and later president of Jamestown.

*The General History of Virginia, New England, and The Summer Isles

John Winthrop (1588-1649)
Studies as Cambridge University to be a lawyer. Joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. Became governor of New England in 1630.

*A Model of Christian Charity (sermon)

William Bradford (1590-1657)
English Separatist leader at Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts.

*Of Plymouth Plantation
*Dialogues

Roger Williams (1603-1683)
English protestant theologian who supported religious freedom. Started the first baptist church in America

*A Key into Language of America
*The Bloody Tenant of Persecution, For Cause of Conscience

Anne Bradsreet (1612-1672)
Passenger on flagship Arbella. Birthed and raised 8 children in America and wrote poems

*The Tenth Muse
*Several Poems Compiled With Great Variety of Wit and Learning

Mary Rowlandson (1636-1711)
Was a minister’s wife in Massachusetts. Captured by Wampanoag Indians during King Philip’s War (1675).

*Narrative (The Sovereignty and Goodness of God)

Edward Taylor (1642-1729)
Known as a major colonial poet. Immigrated from England to America in 1668. Was a Puritan and studied at Harvard. Became minister in Massachusetts.

*Preparatory Meditations

Samuel Sewall (1652-1730)
Judge and businessman. Born in England and went to Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635.

*The Selling of Joseph
*Journal (life as a Puritan)
*Talitha Cumi
*The Revolution in New England Justified

Cotton Mather (1663-1728)
Attempted to recall a time of ecclesiastical order and church authority. Involved in Salem Witch Trials. Became observer and narrator at the court proceedings.

*Magnalia Christi Americana (History of Christianity in New England)
*The Wonders of the Invisible World
*Magnalia

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
Most widely anthologized preacher of Colonial America. Part of 2nd generation Puritans. Prominent during Enlightenment.

*Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (sermon)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
A scientific observer, statesman, and constitutional writer. Wrote about desire to reach “moral perfection.”

*The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

John Woolman (1720-1772)
Born into a Quaker family in New Jersey. Committed to marry his spiritual convictions with earthly activities.

*The Journal of John Woolman

Samson Occum (1723-1792)
A Mohegan Indian who ministered to New England Indian tribes. A Christian convert ordained by Presbyterian Church in 1759.

*A Short Narrative of My Life

J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur
Born in France and spent most of life in America. Asked the question “What is an American?”

*Letters From an American Farmer

Olaudah Equiano (a.k.a. Gustavus Vassa) (1745-1797)
Born along the Niger River. Captured by slave traders and taken to America (1756). Educated in London and served in Navy before being sold again into slavery. Purchased freedom and wrote on behalf of other slaves

*The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, of Gustavus Vassa, The African

Philip Freneau (1752-1832)
Known as “Poet of the American Revolution”. Worked as journalist, satirist, and translator in Philadelphia. Traveled to West Indies in 1776.

*The American Village (book of poetry)
*Poems

Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)
Was a black slave in America. 1st poem book was published before she was 20. Met influential people in England (Ben Franklin). Married a freed man in 1778. Lived in poverty and obscurity while free.

*Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral

Susanna Rowson (1762-1824)
British-American novelist, poet, playwright, religious writer, stage actress, and educator. Wrote first work while working as a governess.

*Charlotte Temple
*Victoria
*The Inquisitor

Washington Irving (1783-1859)
First American international literary superstar.

*The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon
*Salmagundi

Catherine Maria Sedgwick (1789-1867)
American novelist of what’s called “domestic fiction”. Promoted Republican motherhood. Born in Massachusetts and took charge of a school in Lenox.

*A New-England Tale
*Redwood
*Live and Let Live

James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)
One of the most popular authors of early 19th Century. Wrote and published over 40 books in his lifetime.

*The Last of the Mohicans
*Leatherstocking Series
*The Pioneers
*The Spy

William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878)
Linked to Fireside/Schoolroom Poets. Career and popularity began with publication of “Poems”.

*Poetry

William Apess (Apes) (1798-1839)
Was an ordained Methodist minister and writer. Helped organize Mashpee Revolt in 1833-34.

*Bibliography

Caroline Kirkland (1801-1864)
An American writer born in New York. Founded a Domestic school in Geneva with her husband. Wrote first book while living in Michigan. Opened a school for girls after returning to New York.

*A New Home; Who’ll Follow
*Forest Life
*Western Clearings

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Born into a Unitarian family in Boston. Went to Harvard to become a minister and became ordained in 1829. Later struggled with Christianity and broke w/ the Unitarian Church. Supported antislavery and woman’s rights but wouldn’t join reform efforts.

*Nature (“Self-Reliance” “The American Scholar”)
*Essays

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
Lived on Brook Farm in 1841. Used allegory and symbolism in his tales. Early tales were published in magazines and literary journals

*The Token
*Twice-Told Tales
*The Scarlet Letter

William Gilmore Simms (1806-1870)
Poet, novelist, and historian from the South. Supported slavery and opposed Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Edgar Allan Poe pronounced him the best novelist from America.

*Monody, on the Death of Gen. Charles Cotesworth Pinckley
*The Wigwam and the Cabin
*Atlantis, A Tale of the Sea

John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892)
Known as the Quaker poet who wrote anti-slavery poems. Popularity waned after death. Part of the Fireside Poets.

*Voices of Freedom
*Songs of Labor
*In War Time

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Born in Maine and attended Bowdoin College. Was a classmate of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Was the most popular writer and poet of his generation.

*Voices of the Night
*Poems on Slavery
*The Poets and Poetry of Europe

Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894)
American physician, poet, professor, lecturer, and author. Member of Fireside Poets. Educated at Phillis Academy and Harvard.

*Breakfast Table Series
*Old Iron Sides
*Poems

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
Became an orphan at 3. Studied at University of Virginia but was kicked out for drinking/gambling. Went to Richmond where he wrote poetry and joined the army. Later, married his much younger cousin. After his wife died, he soon died mysteriously.

*The Cask of Amantillado
*The Tell-Tale Heart
*The Philosophy of Composition
*The Raven

Margaret Fuller (1810-1850)
Was a member of the Transcendental Club and supported women’s rights. Worked on the Dial (a newspaper). Was the editor of New York Tribune. Taught at Branson Alcott’s Temple School in Boston. Spent her last years traveling and writing in Europe.

*Summer on the Lakes
*Woman of the Nineteenth Century

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)
Wrote the most important text published in the 9th century and the most read book in America and England during the time- Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Wrote second work to prove the validity of the examples of slavery in her book.

*Uncle Tom’s Cabin
*Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp
*The Minister’s Wooing

Thomas Bangs Thorpe (1815-1878)
American humorist, painter, illustrator, and author. Wrote about anti-slavery. Attended Wesleyan University in Connecticut.

*The Big Bear of Arkansas
*The Master’s House

Henry Davide Thoreau (1815-1878)
Focussed on nature and had Transcendental ideas. Ceased to pay poll tax whle living on Walden Pond and went to jail until bailed. Wrote complex novels.

*Walden (wrote while living on Walden Pond in the woods)
*Resistance to Civil Government

Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)
American social reformer, orator, writer, and statesman. Escaped slavery and became leader of abolitionist movement.

*The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave

Harriet Jacobs (Linda Brent) 1818-1896
Lived as a slave but later became free. Was educated and wrote a narrative that changed many views on slavery. Wrote about how she was abused by her master. Wrote the first slave narrative to be published by a woman.

*Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Was popular in the 19th century for his sea narratives. Focused on human depravity and leaned toward the darker side of romanticism.

*Bartleby the Scrivener
*Benito Cereno
*Moby-Dick

Susan Bogert Warner (1819-1885)
An American evangelical writer of religious fiction, children’s fiction, and theological works

*The Wide, Wide World
*The Law and the Testimony
*What She Could

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
Called the father of free verse. Possibly most influential poet in 19th century. His poetry broke many literary and social conventions.

*Leaves of Grass
*Memoranda During the War (book of poems)

Lucy Larcom (1824-1893)
American poet born in MA. Worked at the cotton mills as a childs. Wrote poems and songs about her life at the mill.

*A New England Girlhood
*Among Lowell Mill-Girls: A Reminiscence
*An Idyll of Work

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911)
Born to free black in Baltimore. Lectured for the Maine Anti-Slavery Society. Aided slaves to safety on the Underground Railroad.

*Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects
*Iola Leroy

Rose Terry Cooke (1827-1892)
An American writer born in Connecticut. Welt to Hartford Female Seminary. Taught at a Presbyterian church and worked as a governess. Published her first poem in the New York Daily Tribune.

*The Mormon’s Wife
*Complete Poems

Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900)
American essayist, novelist, and friend of Mark Twain. Born a Puritan in Massachusetts. Co-authored The Guilded Age: A Tale of Today with Mark Twain.

*Sauntering’s
*Baddeck, And That Sort of Thing
*In the Wilderness

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)
Regarded as one of America’s greatest poets. Spent most of life in Massachusetts. Sent many of her poems as gifts to friends/family. Abundant use of dashed and spaces and use of extended metaphors. Didn’t title her poems so they are numbered.

*The Poems of Emily Dickinson
-112 “Success is counted sweet…”
-359 “A bird came down the walk…”

Joseph Kirkland (1830-1894)
American novelist born in NY. Best remembered as the author of two novels of pioneer life in the West. Became the editor of Chicago tribune later in life.

*Zury: The Meanest Man in Spring County
*The McVeys
*The Captain Company of K
*The Story of Chicago

Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885)
U.S. writer who became an activist to improve the treatment of Native Americans by the government. Wrote about the government’s treatment of the Indians.

*A Century of Dishonor
*Ramona

Rebecca Harding Davis (1831-1910)
Her works are largely a part of and a result of the Industrial Revolution. Used her works to explore immigrant laborers.

*Life in the Iron-Mills

Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888)
American novelist, abolitionist, and a feminist. Best known for her novels Little Woman and Little Men. Often used pen name A.M. Barnard. Wrote based on her experiences growing up.

*Little Women
*Little Men
*Jo’s Boys

Samuel L. Clemens/Mark Twain (1835-1910)
Was a journalist and political humorist who grew up in Missouri. Often wrote on slavery and economics. Was criticized on how Americans were portrayed in his novels.

*The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
*The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
*The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton (1835-1895)
A writer, political instigator, and active feminist. Was the first female Mexican-American author to write in English. Her work is considered to be a precursor to Chicano literature.

*Who Would Have Thought It?
*The Squatter and the Don
*Don Quixote de la Mancha

Marietta Holley (1836-1926)
American humorist who used satire to comment on U.S. society and politics. Grew up on a farm in NY and later became the bestselling author of the late 19th century. Often compared to Mark Twain.

*My Opinions and Betsey Bobbet’s

William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Better know for his social, literary, and political connections rather than his own writing. Raised in a political family in Ohio. Published numerous works over his lifetime and worked as an editor of Atlantic Monthly.

*The Rise of Silas Lapham
*Edith

Bret Harte (1839-1902)
An American author and poet. Best known for his accounts of pioneering life in California.

*The Tales of the Argonauts
*The Stolen Cigar-Case

Constance Fenimore Woolson (1840-1894)
American novelist and short story writer. Grandniece of James Fenimore Cooper. Best known for fictions about the Great Lakes region, and the South.

*Miss Grief
*Anne
*For the Major

Henry James (1843-1916)
Born into wealthy family in NY. Published plays, stories, novels, and literary criticism. His novels explored phycology, realism, naturalism, and the adjustments that Americans face in European countries.

*Daisy Miller: A Study
*The Beast in the Jungle
*The Ambassadors

George Washington Cable (1844-1925)
American novelist notable for use of realism. Has been called the first modern southern writer. Wrote articles critical of contemporary society.

*The Grandissimes
*Madame Delphine
*Old Creole Days
*The Creoles of Luisiana

Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908)
American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist. Served as an apprentice on a plantation as a teen. Spent adult life in Atlantis as an associate editor of Atlanta Constitution. Created the famous character, Br’er Rabbit.

*Uncle Remus
*The Story of Mr. Rabbit and Mr. Fox as Told by Uncle Remus

James Lane Allen (1849-1925)
American novelist and short story writer. His work is a characteristic of the late-19th century local color era (when writers sought to capture everyday language (vernacular) in their writing). Has been described as “Kentucky’s first important novelist”

*A Kentucky Cardinal
*Flute and Violin
*Summer in Arcady

Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909)
Lived in Maine, embracing the New England lifestyle. Her stories were published by William Dean Howells in the Atlantic Monthly

*A white Heron

Mary Noailles Murfree (1850-1822)
An American fiction writer of novels and short stories. Used pen name Charles Egbert Craddock. Considered Appalachia’s first significant writer. Created Post-Civil War American local-color Literature.

*In the Tennessee Mountains
*The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains
*The Frontiersmen

George Pasons Lathrop (1851-1898)
American poet and novelist. Married Nathaniel Hawthorn’s daughter, Rose Hawthorne. Became associate editor of Atlantic Monthly. Founded American Copyright League.

*Rose and Roof-Tree
*A Study of Hawthorne

Kate Chopin (1851-1904)
Wasn’t considered major American writer till after death. Grew up in Missouri. Husband died leaving her to raise 6 children by herseld. Wrote about the lives of women as they navigate social mores of the 19th century. Published many tales of the Cajuns and Creoles.

*Bayou Folk
*The Storm
*The Awakening

Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930)
Prominent 19th Century American author. Began writing as a teenager to help support family. Write short stories that combined domestic realism and the supernatural.

*A New England Nun and Other Stories
*The Adventures of Ann
*Pembroke

Robert Grant (1852-1940)
American author and jurist. Graduated from Harvard. Wrote his first novel about the problems facing young women of his time. Wrote one of the best selling novels of the 1900’s.

*The Confessions of a Frivolous Girl (first work)
*The Average Man
*Unleavened Bread (the best-seller)

Grace King (1852-1932)
American author of Louisiana stories, history, and biography. Leader in historical and literary activities. Born in New Orleans. Was friends with Mark Twain and Edmund Wilson.

*Monsieur Motte
*New Orleans: The Place and the People
*Stories from Louisiana History

Harold Frederic (1856-1898)
American journalist and novelist. Went to school to be a photographer. Later became a reporter and editor of Albany Evening Journal.

*The Damnation of Theron Ware
*Claria Mundi
*In the Valley

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
Went from a son of a slave to a college president and internationally known writer and orator. Wrote about how free blacks should interest with white-dominated America. Quoted “Cast down the buckets where you are.” Urged readers to focus on individual sucess.

*Up From Slavery (his autobiography)
*Tuskegee ande His People
*The Story of the Negro

Margaret Deland (1857-1945)
American novelist, short story writer, and poet. Wrote an autobiography in two volumes.

*John Ward, Preacher
*Old Chester Tales
*The Old Garden

Charles Eastman (1858-1939)
Native American physician, writer, national lecturer, and reformer. Later named Ohyyesa. Active in politics and issues on American Indian rights. Helped found the Boy Scouts of America. Considered first Native American author to write American history from Native point of view.

*Memories of an Indian Boyhood
*Old Indian Days
*The Soul of the Indian

Charles W. Chesnutt (1858-1932)
African American author, essayist, political activist, and lawyer. Best known for novels and short stories exploring issues of racial and social identity in Post-Civial War South. Books were adapted as silent films in 1926.

*The Conjure Woman
*The House Behind the Cedars
*The Marrow of Tradition

Hamlin Garland (1860-1940)
American novelist, poet, essayist, and short story writer. Best known for fiction involving hard-working Midwestern farmers.

*Main-Traveled Roads
*A Son of the Middle Border

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)
Independent reformer and social activist. Wrote mostly nonfiction encompassing issues from children to economics to socialism. Experienced postpartum depression after having child. Later diagnosed with breast cancer and committed suicide.

*The Yellow Wallpaper

Edith Wharton (1862-1937)
Published a few poems and stories as a young girl. Later divorced her husband who was cheating on her and moved to France. Used conventions of realism and naturalism to depict the controlled life of a woman in upper-class America

*Ethan Frame
*The Custom of the Country
*The Age of Innocence
*The House of Mirth

Sui-Sin Far/Edith Maude Eaton (1865-1914)
Author known for writing about Chinese people in North America and the Chinese-American experience. Father was Englishman and mother was Chinese. Wrote as a young girl.

*Mrs. Spring Fragrance (collection of stories)

David Graham Phillips (1867-1911)
American novelist and journalist of the muckraker tradition. Born in Indiana and employed as a reporter. Later worked and freelance journalist and wrote fiction. His novels were often about social issues.

*The Great God Success
*The Fashionable Adventures of Joshua Craig
*Susan Lenox: Her Fall and Rise

W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963)
Born to free parents in Massachusetts. 1st African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. Researched the slave trade and taught on it at universities. Wrote important works on African American life. Coined the term “double-consciensness”. Evenutally became fed up with racism in America and immigrated to Ghana.

*The Souls of Black Folks
*The Philadelphia Negro
*The Suppression of the African Slave Trade

Mary Hunter Austin (1868-1934)
Early American writer of the American Southwest. Lived in California. Studied Indian life in the Mojave Desert.

*The Land of Little Rain

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935)
Wrote poetry collections after World War I. His poetry uses traditional forms but wide-range of irony, which sets him apart. Poems are often filled with human suffering and isolation.

*Richard Cory
*Mr. Flood’s Party
*The Mill
*Miniver Cheevy

Frank Norris/Benjamin Franklin Norris (1870-1902)
American novelist during progressive era. Wrote in the naturalist genre. Work includes depictions of suffering caused by corrupt and greedy corporate monopolies.

*The Octopus: A California Story
*Mc Teague
*The Pit

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)
Worked as a common laborer, was a soldier in the Spanish-American War, was an agricultural worker, and even was a railroad hobo at one point. Later got a job as a journalist and an editor. Lectured and taught on Abraham Lincoln.

*Complete Poems
*Abraham Lincoln: The War Years
*”Chicago”
*”Fog”

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Wrote on the Civil War. Died a young man but had a life of travel and success in writing.

*The Red Badge of Courage
*Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
*”The Open Boat”

Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945)
Novelist from the Midwest. Wrote novels set in Chicago. Many of his themes focus on social mobility, class difference, sexual empowerment, and issues that affect urban life.

*Sister Carrie
*The Titan
*An American tragedy

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)
Born in Kentucky to former slaves. Went to a predominantly white school. Read poems at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. Most noted for ability to use elevated poetic language in one poem and African-American dialect in the next. Poems often used poetic persona.

*We Wear the Mask
*An Ante-Bellum Sermon
*Lyrics of a Lowly Life

Robert Frost (1874-1963)
Most famous U.S. Poet. Worked as a journalist, teacher, and textile worker. Moved to England and befriended Ezra Round who inspired him to keep writing. Won many prizes for his poetry. Recited a poem at J.F.K.’s inauguration. Used traditional conventions but used the conventions in a way that set him apart. Poetry often reflected ideas and landscapes of New England.

*The Road Not Taken
*The Wood Pile
*Fire and Ice
*Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Zona Gale (1874-1938)
American author and playwright. First woman to win the Pulizer Prize for Drama. Got a Bachelor of Literature degree and later a Masters. Wrote for newspapers. Was a member of National Woman’s Party.

*Miss Lulu Bett
*When I Was a Little Girl
*Mr. Pitt

Jack London (1876-1955)
Represents major writers from the West Coast. Traveled the country before attending high school. Went to Alaska during the Alaskan Gold Rush in 1897. Wrote about the Klondike after returning.

*Call of the Wild
*To Build a Fire
*The Sea Wolf

Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) (1876-1938)
Born on Yankton Indian Reserve in South Dakota. A Sioux writer, editor, musician, teacher, and political activist. Wrote about the conflicts in her life between dominant American culture and her own Native American heritage. Founded the National Council of American Indians.

*Old Indian Legends
*American Indian Stories
*The Sun Dance Opera

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
Worked hard while attending Harvard and NY Law School. Became a legal advisor. Didn’t publish poetry till his mid-30s. Uses color, lively imagery, and humor in his poems. Each poem uses modernist ideology.

*Of Modern Poetry
*Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird
*Sunday Morning

Charles Gilman Norris (1881-1945)
U.S. novelist and brother of Frank Norris. Worked as a journalist before becoming a successful novelist and playwright.

*The Amateur
*Brass: A Novel of Marriage

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)
Studied medicine and is known as the “Doctor Poet”. Devoted as much time to his patients as he did American poetry. Used “Objectivism” which views poems as an object.

*Paterson
*Spring and All
*The Red Wheelbarrow

Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
Born in the U.S. but spent most of his life in Europe. Was a friend and inspiration to many modernist writers. Founded a group of modernist poets called imagists. Eventually moved away from imagism and towards a new movement called Vorticism (highly abstract and modern).

*In a Station of the Metro
*The Cantos
*A Pact

Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951)
An American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. First U.S. writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize on Literature. His works are known for critical views of American society and capitalist values.

*Hike and the Aeroplane
*Main Street
*Babbit

Anzia Yezierska (1885-1970)
American novelist who was born in Poland and immigrated to America while young. After being married and divorced, she devoted her life to writing. She wrote about the struggles Jewish immigrants face in New York.

*Hungry Heats
*Bread Givers
*All I Could Never Be

T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
Born in St. Louis to a wealthy family. Educated in the best private schools and published poetry while attending Harvard. Immigrated to Europe and spent most of life there. He became friends with Pound. Worked at a bank, founded the lit. journal Criteria, and wrote poetry.

*The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufroth
*Journey of the Magi
*The Waste Land

Nella Larsen (1891-1964)
American novelist of the Harlem Renaissance. Was a nurse and librarian. Published two novels and a few short stories while she worked. He works address issues of race and sexual identity.

*Quicksand
*Passing
*Freedom

E.E. Cummings (1894-1962)
Has the most distinct poetic style of any of his contemporaries. Avoids capitalization, punctuation, traditional poetic lines and forms, and spaces between words. Is also known for his paintings. Wrote for the Dial.

*Tulips and Chimneys
*in Just-
*Buffalo Bill’s
*i thank You God for most this amazing

F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)
Heralded as the writer of the Jazz Age (a term he coined). His stories explore the tension between the “old” and the “new” during the Roaring Twenties. Spent time in Europe with Hemingway and Stein.

*The Great Gatsby
*Winter Dreams
*Tales of the Jazz Age

William Faulkner (1897-1962)
Best known for his fictional County, Yoknapatawpha. Wrote about issues of southern identity: race, class, sex, gender. Addressed social taboos like interracial sexuality, incest, and plays with narrative form. Used Stream of Consciousness (mental-emotional life rather than external.

*The Sound and the Fury
*That Evening Sun
*As I Lat Dying
*Absalom, Absalom!

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
“My aim is to put down on paper what I see and what I feel in the best and simplest way.” Used short, crisp sentences and used adjectives sparingly. Spent time as a reported and journalist for the Kansas City Star. Won Nobel Prize of Literature in 1954. Committed suicide in 1961.

*A Farewell to Arms
*Old Man and the Sea
*Men Without Women

John Steinbeck (1902-1968)
Recognized for 2 key literary concepts: regionalism and naturalism. Most of his novels take place in California and The Salinas Valley was his literary canvas. Expressed distain for economic and social corruption in his works. Won Nobel Prize in Literature.

*The Grapes of Wrath
*Of Mice and Men
*East of Eden

Arthur Miller (1915-2005)
Wrote riveting plays about American life. Married and later divorced first wife to marry Marilyn Monroe. Later was questions because of possible affiliation with communist organizations.

*Death of a Salesman
*All My Sons

J.D. Salinger (1919-2010)
American writer raised in Manhattan. Published short stories in Story magazine. Served in World War II. His book, The Catcher in the Rye was at one time the most frequently censored book and the second most frequently taught book in schools. It freely used religious slurs and freely talked about prostitution.

*The Catcher in the Rye
*Franny and Zooey

Flannery O’ Connor (1925-1964)
She lived in Georgia and rarely left there or even the South. Her stories and characters are filled with complexity and depth. She explores what it means to be Southern and ultimately what it means to be human. She was known for her devout Christian faith. She died at 40 due to lupus.

*A Good Man is Hard to Find
*Good Country People
*Revelation

John Updike (1932-2009)
Grew up in Pennsylvania where many of his stories took place. Graduated from Harvard, studied art in England, and them became the writer for The New Yorker. Devoted life to writing. Was perfect at describing, exploring, and analyzing white, middle-class American life.

*A&P
*Separating
*Pigeon Feathers
*Rabbit, Run

Toni Morrison (1931-
Born and raised in Ohio. Encouraged by her parents to participate in education the the arts. After graduating she taught, married, and had two children. She later divorced and worked as an editor. Her writing has a very Midwestern feel.

*The Bluest Eye
*Beloved
*Recitatif