Ancient Egypt was the homeland of one of the earliest and greatest civilizations known to man. These truly amazing people were The Ancient Egyptians. This civilization began in about 3100 BC up until about 1070 BC. The Egyptians were recognized for their richness and sophistication. They built huge monuments such as the great pyramids, which still stand here today. They evolved a great system of government, the invention of irrigation and hieroglyphics, and the beginnings of astronomy, mathematics, medicine and great artistic skill.
2) The Pharaohs
The pharaoh controlled the most power. As a living god he was the high priest in everything in Egypt. The pharaoh was supported by a large number of advisers and officials. Scribes were employed to administer the land, the law, the army and the temples. The pharaoh was the ultimate authority. The pharaoh was accepted by all as the source of justice. He was responsible for making any laws. One of the most famous pharaohs was probably Tutankhamen. The British archaeologist Howard Carter and his patron Lord Carnarvon discovered his tomb in 1922. They found his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
The death mask of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen is made of gold inlaid with lapis lazuli and carnelian. The mask comes from the innermost mummy case in the pharaoh’s tomb and stands 54 cm (21 in) high.
Slavery was not common in Egypt; it only became noteworthy during the New Kingdom when the citizens of a conquered land were taken from then on as slaves.
The types of food the Ancient Egyptians had varied from their class. The staple food of peasants was cereals, bread and beer, which is the most common drink the Egyptians were credited for inventing.
The diet of those in a higher class generally consisted of vegetables and fruits such as beans, chickpeas, lentils, figs and fish which was the most common due to the river Nile. Ordinary people did not eat meat, perhaps only at festivals in which beef seems to have been the most common of all the meats they had. The rich however ate a lot of meat such as, Antelope and Gazelle, regularly. They had much more of a varied diet. Instead of having a peasants two meal a day, they had three meals a day. Their meal consisted of porridge, pigeon, boiled fish, beef, bead, cakes, stewed fruits and cheese.
Education in Ancient Egypt depended on that particular person’s social class. The children of those from a low class family mostly learned everything from their parents. Boys learned their skills from their fathers or any other male relatives. The skills they learned were simple farm tasks, apprentices in certain crafts or professions. Girls learned more domestic skills such as weaving, brewing, and bread making from their mothers.
Teaching reading and writing was normally meant for the children of wealthy and rich families. Writing was taught by using tablets or occasionally papyrus on which students copied different symbols of hieroglyphic script. Hieroglyphics are often found on tomb walls. In schools mathematics was taught. The Ancient Egyptians must have had a good understanding of geometry for they were able construct such complex and impressive monuments. A famous Egyptian mathematician was the great Pythagoras.
In Ancient Egypt they had all sorts of entertainment. Dancing and music was very popular. Tomb paintings show women playing flutes, trumpets, oboes, harps, lutes, and such simple percussion instruments as clappers or rattles.
Men enjoyed sports such as wrestling, boxing, fencing, and running. Entertainment was available in the many beer houses, where there was much singing, dancing, and playing of board games, which were very popular.