system in which a ruler (king or queen) has complete authority over the government without limits on his/her power
government ruled by nobles or the upper class
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eastern part of the Roman empire, existed from 330 A.D. to 1453 A.D.
; preserved the rich cultural heritage of the ancient Greeks; saved Roman texts from destruction after the fall of the western part of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D.
small independent state that consists of a city and the territory surrounding it; associated with Ancient Greece
system of government in which one person or one party rules the government with absolute control
series of rulers from the same family or line of descent
codification of Roman law by the Emperor Justinian in the 6th century that greatly influenced the Western legal system
Law of Twelve Tablets
basis of Roman law written on twelve tablets around 450 B.C.
and displayed in the marketplace for all to see and know.
form of government in which a small group or elite has power
wealthy landowners or nobles of the ancient Roman Empire
time of Roman peace and relative prosperity in the Mediterranean world beginning in 27 B.C. and lasting over 200 years during the time of the Roman Empire
-independent city-state in ancient Greece-lower level was main center of city (business, homes)-higher level was the acropolis (temples)
Alexander the Great
(356-323 BC) became king of Macedonia in 336 upon assassination of his father Philip; proceeded to control Greece and conquered the entire Persian Empire (Egypt, Asia Minor, the Fertile Crescent, and India); laid the foundation for the fusion of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures during the Hellenistic period; maintained peace and unity in the Middle East, which later influenced the Romans.
-Macedonian -created an empire stretching from North Africa to India-created Hellenism (refers to blending of Persian, Indian, Greek, and Egyptian culture)
(384-322 BC) Greek philosopher who wrote works on philosophy, science, government, and literature; served as personal tutor to Alexander the Great; his works influenced Europeans thinking for over 200 years.-believed in strong rule that made people learn and progress through reason-wanted people to live in moderation
Augustus (63 BC- 14 AD)
first emperor of Rome; attained sole power after defeat of Mark Antony; Pax Romana, administrative reforms that laid the foundation for growth of the Empire that lasted for centuries.
(427-347 BC) Greek philosopher; student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle; wrote The Republic in which he rejected democracy for the ideal state ruled by philosophers.-student of Socrates-believed government should control the lives of people-thought society should be divided into three classes: workers, soldiers, and philosophers-philosophers would be rulers
(469-399 BC) Greek philosopher of ancient Athens; advocated the maxim “Know thyself”; left no written works; refused to renounce his principles even in the face of death when accused of treason fro corrupting the minds of youth.-method of questioning to learn about ones true belief and ideas-urged Athenian youth to question authority-sentenced to death
Ancient Greece geography
-mountains and islands-long coastline made trade easy as did Greece’s location near Asia and Middle East-prevented formation/unification of an empire
-ruled as a brutal dictatorship, militaristic-used conquered people as slaves-wanted isolation-opposed foreign trade and travel
-evolved from monarchy into democracy-people were satisfied economically-people resented the fact that the wealthy continued to maintain power-(507 BC) council of 500 was set up, members were chosen by male citizens-council approved or rejected laws-consisted of only male citizens, usually over 30 years old-slavery continued
Ancient Greek Golden Age
(1000 BC-900BC)-polytheistic: belief in many gods-architecture: typically triangular roof sitting on columns (US courthouse influenced off this idea), Parthenon (temple built to honor Goddess Athena in acropolis in Athens)-sculpture: usually does as though the subject had perfect physique-literature: Homer (The Iliad, The Odyssey), Eurypides (play writer-science and math: Pythagoras, Hippocrates (founder of modern medication)
-Greek statesman during Golden Age-eulogy: primary source
(1950 BC) -between Ceraens and Trojans-over Helen
(490 BC- 470 BC)-between Greek citystates and Persia-Greeks won-power over Aegean Sea, mediterranean
(404 BC)-between Sparta and Athens- Sparta won with Persian help-Sparta lost to Thebes-Thebes lost to Alexander the Great
-refers to blending of Persian, Indian, Greek, ad Egyptian culture
-Roman armies conquered the Greek city-states and all of Italy-citizen soldiers fought for free: well trained, valued, loyal, courage, fair with those they conquered, demanded only taxes and soldiers-built roads throughout the Empire-those they conquered learned Latin and Roman beliefs and customs-took land from Spain to Egypt to parts of Asia Minor (Turkey)
(260 BC)-fought between Rome and Carthage (North African citystate)-Hannibal (general of Carthage) led troops on elephants over Alps-surprised the Romans-fought with Romans for 15 years-Romans burned Carthage to the ground
Consequences of Expansion
-Romans got wealthier-greater use of slaves-increase in corruption and greed-smaller farmers could not compete with wealthier farmers who could afford slaves
-wanted to reform society by helping poor-seen as threat to society-killed along with followers
Roman civil war
-between senate and popular political leaders-political leaders wanted to weaken senate-rival armies were loyal to their individual commanders-commander who succeeded: Julius Caeser
-conquered Gual and Rome-senate made him dictator-enacted reforms to help poor and jobless-established new calender-Ides of March
Ides of March
-many were afraid that Caeser would make himself king for life-he was warned something would happen to him-didn’t take warning seriously-stabbed to death that day
Civil war in beginning of Empire
-Mark Antony and Octavian (Augustus) hunted for killer of Caesar-eventually turned on each other-Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra (egyptian ally)
-changed named to Augustus-became Rome’s first emperor-began Rome’s golden age (Pax Romana)-stabilized Rome-left senate in its place-enacted economic reforms (fairer tax systems)-set up civil service system (qualified people get the job)-created postal service-built roads and temples
Caligula and Nero
-persecuted Christians-burned down much of Rome
Hadrian and Marcus Aurelias
(284 AD)-divided empire into two parts (easier to govern)-kept Eastern part (wealthier)-gave Western part to co-emperor (unstable, poor, falling)-co-emperor must report to him about news of the Western part
(300 AD)-talented general-permitted Christianity to spread and become official religion of empire-built Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)-eastern part is center of empire-western part was left to decline
-Germanic group-took over Italy and Rome-led by Alaric
Atilla the Hun
-conquered much of Europe-drove other tribes deeper into Roman territory-after he died, empire collapsed-Odacer (germanic leader) ousted emperor of Rome: fall of Rome
-Eastern part of Roman Empire-Constantinople was capital-Justinian established code of law (Justinian’s Code), influences today’s laws-blended Christian beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, etc. -preserved Greece-Roman cultures and values-art: religious based-architecture: blended Greek, Roman, Persian and other Middle Eastern styles-scholars preserved and studied Greek classics