Geography: Unlike Greece why is Italy easy to unify
-no isolated mountains or valleys- there are mountains but they are less rugged -Apennines -broad fertile plains in North under the Alps and in west (Rome)
How are the Romans heavily influenced by the Greeks and Etruscans?
-Romans borrow the Phoenician alphabet- architecture and gods
What river is Rome settled on and who are the ancestors of the Romans?
– settle on the Tiber river- ancestors are the Latins
– “thing of the people- 509 B.C- 31 B.C- officials chosen by the people
Status Pyramid of Roman Republic
Dictator- as needed 6 month term in war or emergency 2. Consuls- (2 consuls). 1 year=1 term; fear of single ruler3. Senators- (300 Patricians) landholding elite, serve for life4. Tribunes- (elected by the Plebeians)5. Plebeians- ( framers, merchants, artisans, traders) middle and lower class6. Slaves and foreigners
Roman world takes shape
– 509 B.C- founding of republic with defeat of Etruscan king- 450 B.
C- 12 tables in forum- plebeians protest and gain right to appeal judgements and elect own officials- system of checks and balances
-taxes- justice- city government- religious matters- censor- census- military
-republic- senate- veto- checks- (not all the legacies)
How long does the Republic last for?
Family Roman Society
Is basic unit of society (father is head of family)
When do Roman women gain more freedom?
In the late republic and early empire
What freedoms do Roman women gain?
– women run and own businesses- women have more visible public roles (public baths, dined out and attended public entertainment)- women gain more politicians influence then Greeks
Who received education?
All boys and girls regardless of class
Roman society religion late republic
Polytheistic-main gods Jupiter, Ian God and Juno main goddess
Roman religious festivals
-Roman gods worshipped and honored at festivals (often with excess)- Saturnalia- festival where owners and slaves reversed roles and lasted 7 days
Other mystery religions/ cults
– especially for women-Cult of Mithras- worshipped Isis (Egyptian goddess)
Roman success when Rome conquest a vast empire
-skilled smart politicians and diplomats-loyal and patriotic Roman citizens- well trained equipped and led legions
– roman dictator in state of emergency ( dictators are appointed for six months) after he takes care of crisis in 6 weeks he returns back to his farm
Roman treatment of conquered people
– similar to Alexander the Great, treat them with justice-If they acknowledge Roman government, pay taxes and supply soldiers to legions, in return they an keep customs, money, local government and in some cases get citizenship. similar to alexander the great- some become slaves
– (iter, road trip or via, road way)-all weather roads- trade and travel encouraged- latin becomes common language (like English today)- cultural diffusion occured
Punic (Phoenician) wars
C (modern day Tunisia)
First Punic War
– rome wins and gets Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia
Second Punic War
– Carthage invades Italy via the Alps and fights in Italy for 15 years- What ends second punic war is Rome sends an army to Carthage , Hannibal goes home and loses at the battle of Zama
Third Punic War
– Rome attacks and destroys Carthage (now roman province)- Carthaginians are enslaved. Romans “scatter salt”- Rome is the master of the western mediterranean
The Punic Wars were who vs. who and wins the Punic wars?
– Rome vs. Carthage- Rome wins all three Punic wars
– Carthaginian general/ commander
After Punic wars Romans look East and do what?
– they take over Greece and Asia Minor- By 133 B.c the mediterranean is “mare nostrum”, our sea
Effects of Roman expansion
– (latter years of the Republic) (socio-economic consequences)- Increase of trade and wealth leads to problems- new lass emerges the “wealthy”
-owns lavish mansions- new class has Latifundia (large estates) worked by slaves-hurts small farmer, cant produce grain as cheaply, surplus of grain from conquered lands puts them in debt- farmers flock to urban areas- big gap between rich and poor that creates unrest
– 133 B.C- Gracchus brothers- patricians who are tribunes – they try to ease plight of poor – give land to poor farmers – public funds to feed poor and greater citizenship
Civil War begins
– senate worried of threat to their power- senate wants to keep the status quo and rule as in the past- tribunes and reformers weaken the senate and initiate reforms such as those posed by the Gracchus brothers – death of Gracchus brothers sets off 100 years of civil war (both are assassinated)
Julius Caesar and the decline of the Republic
-Julius caesar( 100-44 B.
c) -magnetic personality, alert mind, good looks – in %9 B.c left for 9 years to conquer Gaul (france) wrote the book Gallic Wars and became people favorite
Julius Caesar partners Crassus and Pompey
– Crassus dies and Pompey tells Caesar to come back- Caesar crosses Rubicon, which initiates civil war- Caesar forces Senate to make him dictator for life- absolute ruler of Rome
Julius Caesar Refroms
– 48-44 B.C- public works to employ jobless- public land to poor- reorganizes government in provinces-citizenship to more foreign provinces- make julian calendar (ours today)
– 44 B.C ides of March (march 15) 10 years of civil war
– defeats Caesars enemies (Mark Antony and Cleopatra)- is names Augustus (exalted one) – empire begins in 31 B.
C – called himself princeps, first citizen, (not king because of Etruscans) – rules circa 31-41 B.C – fair but firm 1st emperor that brings Rome out of turmoil
Roman Achievements, Roman law
– “greatest legacy” Roman commitment to law and justice- justus= right- initially there are two systems of law but later the two systems are merged into one.
– applied to Roman citizens- today we have civil and criminal laws
Law of Nations
– Applied to citizens and non-citizens
Common Principles, Rome and U.S
– all are equal under law- if accused your innocent until proven guilty-accused allowed to face accuser and defend self against the charge.- must be guilty beyond reasonable doubt- decisions based on fair assessment by judge
Improvements/ reforms initiated by Augustus
– laid foundation for a stable government-cretaed effcient, well trained civil service- jons in government based on talent, not calss- allowed self-governemt i provinces (imperial govenors)- professional, paid volunteer military- tried to estbalish old Republicna virtues (loylatuy, hard work , patriotism, ethics and slfless ness
Ecomonic Reforms Augustis
-fairer tac systme-ordered a census-set up a postal service- issued new coins- trade easier- put jobless to work building, temples and roads and to farm land.
-bad emperor-set city on fire(54-68)
-Bad emperor- appointed horse- (37-41)
-good emperor- codified roman law for all provinces and built hadrians wall across Britain
– a stoic-good emporer- wrote mediations- 161-180
Pax Romana (27 B.C-180)
– 200 years perios of peace, untity , law and order, trade-Stretched from Britain to the Euphrates River (iraq)- trade flowed to China (silk road) India, throughout Hellenistic area- spread of roman ideas, knowledge, cultural diffusion
Bread and Circuses for the People
– Circus Maximus for chariot races and areas used for gladiator fights and killing of Christians -emperors used these to pacify mobs- general prosperity hid underlying social and economic ills an problems
Literature and Drama
– influenced heavily by the Greeks
– literature- ” roman Homer- alive during republic and empire- epic Aeneid showed Rome’s past- hoped to arouse patriotism and unite Rome after years of Civil War
-literature-retold tales of gods/ erotic poems (sent to remote province for immoral poetry- used metaphor of gold, silver and bronze in the Metamorphosis
– A Republican who used verse to satirize Roman society- advised the golden mean-literature
-literature-satirist who coined the phrase bread and circuses- said with buffoons like these walking Roman streets, its not hard to write satire
-literature-poser writer on government, justice and theology
– not a major influence on Greek society
– actors were considered to be of questionable moral repute (persona non grata)- only males were actors-both sexes were mimes and dancers
-historians-59 bc to 17- like Virgil sought to arouse patriotic feelings and restore traditional Roman values and virtues- wrote about Horatius and Cincinnatus- Horatius single handedly saved Rome from invading Etruscans
-admired the Germans to the North and wrote bitterly about the empire-historian
-historian- wrote about bravery of Roma and started custom of eulogizing woman and not just men
-borrowed form the Greeks- stoics all are morally equal- stressed importance of duty and accepting ones fate
Roman Architecture/ Art
– blend of greco roman-
– imported Greek works to Rome- adapted and stressed greek/hellenistic concepts of realism and idealism- mosaic artwork in homes colored glass or stone
-found all over the med region- used and improved on greek columns, emphasized grandeur-improved on arches, domes and vaulted roofs- examples, victory arches, temples, bath, aqueducts and amphitheaters
roads , bridges and harbors, part of the roads still exist today- invented early form of concrete- aqueducts cary water along stone channels, using only gravity- drained marshes to reduce disease and gain more usable land
– left scientific research to the Greeks- Ptolemy- earth is the center of the universe-Galen- wrote medical encyclopedia and preformed experiments or injected cure on self first to prove usefulness-Pliny the Elder- first Roman encyclopedia entitled Natural History-math- roman numerals
served in times of emergency for 6 months or until crisis ended
served one term for one year
Place were romans gathered to socialize, shop and conduct government business
the roman upper class
defeated in 509 bc and led to start of roman republic
The Roman middle class, farmers merchants artisans traders
officials chosen by the people thing of the people last 500 years
-Landholding elite who serve for life in the Roman legislative body
Slaves and Foriegners
-this group would be below the Roman lower class
represented the middle and lower class in Roman legislature (has the Veto???)
Gave rights to Plebians (elect their own officials)
A check or balance used to stop unfair law
Reforms of Diocletian (284) DWIFF
– Divided empire into two parts he rules east and co-emperor rules west- west is “Roman empire” east becomes known as Byzantine empire- increase prestige of emperor, purple robes and crowns ( purple was expensive to make)-fixed prices for goods and services (prevents inflation)-farmers remain on land and sons follow in dads profession
Reforms of Constantine (312) BTEE
– built new capital Constantinople in east ( Byzantium becomes Constantinople) today it is Istanbul-this new capital not Rome becomes new center of power- Eastern part of empire prospers for 1000 more years until 1400s it had more people and resources- edict of Milan toleration of Christianity in 313
Effects of Reforms (mixed) good and bad EDRFF
-empire is split in two weakens it- does extend the life of western part Rome for another 200 years-revives economy-failed to stop long-term decline -fall of Roman empire
Fall of Roman empire political reasons CLMTBD
-corruption in government widespread – leaders not able leaders- more oppressive and authoritarian lost support of Roman People- therefore lost support of people- bureaucracy too large and tough to support- division of empire into east and west weekend empire beyond repair
last Emperor of west -Romulus Augustus combination of names of legendary founder of Rome and founder of empire
Fall of Roman empire military reasons MLLU
-many volunteers in legions with many mercenaries many non-Romans and new citizens- legions Little loyalty to Rome and felt little loyalty to commander and money- Lack of discipline and training- unable to defeat mobile Germanic hordes from North
Huns from East displace Visgoths ( Germanic from east Europe into Roman Empire
Visigoths defeat Romans at Adrianople- stunning defeat
Alaric (Visigoth) plunders Rome (1st. Time in 800 years)
Atilla the Hun (the scourge of God) savage campaign in Europe and sends more Germanic people into Roman Empire
Vandals from Rhine area raid Rome and Italy via North Africa
Odoacer ousts Roman emperor= Rome falls
Fall of Roman Empire economic reasons HFMLSP
– heavier taxes discourage and overburden taxpayers and discourage businesses -farmers abandon farms/ land= unemployment urban unrest- middle class driven into poverty by taxes- slave labor increases – less exploration of new technology- population declines due to war, disease and poor diet
Fall of Roman Empire social reasons WDUML
– war and famine redux disease and population- decline of patriotism, discipline, duty and responsibility – upper class wallows in luxury and self interest – middle class destroyed by taxes- lower class unemployed and placated by bread and circuses
Did the Romans initially tolerate Jewish religion why and why not?
Yes Romans knew that worship of Roman gods would violate Jewish teachings on one God
In century after 66 A.D. when series of rebellion and broke out did Roman attitude toward Jewish religion change? what happened to the Jews?
Yes the Jews were not tolerate it and they were considered to be a threatThe Jews were killed enslaved and scattered from Jerusalem fancy word for that- diasporaRoman zealots want it to eval and form their own Jewish nation
Independent Jewish nation today
Israel established in 1948
Roman attitude toward Christian religion
Did the Romans initially tolerate Christian religion and why or why not?
They did not tolerate Christian religion they thought that Christians were disloyal
In the 313 what ever issues that edict of Milan and what is the edict of Milan?
Constantine issued the edict of Milan the edict of Milan granted freedom of worship to all citizens of Rome
about 80 years later what does Emperor Theodosius do?
He makes Christianity the official religion of Rome
Basic message of Jesus teachings of Jesus firmly rooted in the Jewish religion what were the three basic teachings and elements of the Christian religion of Jesus?
-One God all knowing all present- 10 commandments religious duties and ethical standards-spiritual life and a turnover award for those who believe in him this is unlike an eye for an eye teaching
Whatdoes the word Christ/Christos mean in Greek
Why did Christianity spread despite persecutions?
– People willing to die for their religion-educated people liked how they used philosophy to teach Jesus is message-people found comfort in the promise of a better life beyond the grave-Jesus welcome to all people especially the lowly and poor
What role did women play the church?
Women were teachers administrators and martyrs
Who is the head of the diocese
The end of the Pax Romana
-ambitious general’s sees power-in 150 year period 26 emperors only one died from natural causes-decline of empire starts – slow and gradual-A lot of social/economic factors which leads us to a foreshadowing of feudalism Middle Ages
Why was there no opportunity for a peaceful transition of power?
There was no Constitution and therefore no peaceful transition