Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Sammy Butler
Last updated: September 21, 2019
Anna McGillis 1-18-18 IMMUNE SYSTEMPROJECT Period 6, SLS43-10As early as A.D 1000, people in India, China, andAfrica would expose themselves to mild cases of smallpox in order to acquireimmunity for the disease. This is where the idea of vaccinations firstoriginated. It has been theorized that vaccination has been around for manycenturies in ancient civilizations such as China, India, and Persia in 1000B.
C. They used a process called variolation in which patients would be injectedwith a sample of the disease in a cut on their body. This process can beeffective in developing immunity, yet some experience a harmful attack sincethe disease is still alive. These theories have never been proved true, but thefirst recorded use of vaccination was by Edward Jenner who was born on May 17thin Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Orphaned at an age of five, Edwards interest inscience was always a constant in his life. He started as a surgeon’s apprenticeand later studied anatomy and surgery at St.
George’s Hospital, London withsurgeon John Hunter. Edward returned to Berkeley in 1772 to practice generalmedicine and surgery as a local doctor. Edward continued his research onvaccinations during his career until 1796 when he tested his vaccination on aneight-year-old boy.
He inserted the pus from a cow pustule into the arm of theboy, and his theory was proved right as he never contracted the cowpox disease.In 1797 Edward submitted his findings on vaccinations to the Royal Society butwas told that there wasn’t enough proof. Edward Jenner was determined tojustify his findings so he began to test on many other children including hisown 11-month old son. In 1798 he was able to publish findings and called histreatment a vaccine due to the word for cow in Latin being ‘Vacca.’ Oncepublished many people did not agree with his means of testing with materialfrom a diseased animal. Edward did not stop his research and was able to spreadvaccinations due to their evident benefits.
He died on the 26th of January,1823.Vaccines work by injecting weakened or deadmicrobes into healthy individuals. The weakened microbes do not cause diseasebut their antigens trigger immune responses as it would to a real infection.This means that the immune system produces memory cells which create immunityagainst subsequent exposure to the living and dangerous microbes. Using geneticengineering tailor-made vaccines can be made.
You can do this by synthesizesthe antigenic proteins of the disease-causing microbes. The antigens are usedas vaccines and do not need to be injected along with a weakened or deadmicrobe. The second way you can do this is by inserting genes that encode theantigens into the genome of harmless microbes. The “designer”microbes produce antigens without causing the disease.Measles was one of the most contagious virusesduring the 20th century. Measles has been speculated to have been around sincethe 9th century due to a Persian doctor writing a paper on encountering adisease which resembles measles. By 1912, measles was seen as a threat as anaverage of 6,000 measles deaths were seen each year.
By 1963, a vaccine formeasles was created by John Enders with the help of his colleagues. The CDCstruggled in their fight against measles but were able to decrease the numberof reported measles cases by 80% in 1981. By 2000 measles was said to beeradicated. In the recent years, evidence suggests that this is not the case.
In 2013 measles cases in the United States tripled, despite the fact that 90%of the American population does have their vaccinations. On March 7th of 2014,there has been an outbreak of an outbreak of measles in northern Manhattan andthe Bronx. Canadian officials also reported that five new cases of measles havebeen discovered in British Columbia.
2014 itself has been reported to have 667cases of measles from 27 different states. No number of cases has been thishigh in the United States since 2000. In 24 states and the District ofColumbia, 188 cases of measles were reported in 2015. In 2016 there were 86cases from 16 states.
In 2017 there were 120 cases from 15 states. The flu virus is a very common in the UnitedStates. It is recommended that people get a shot every year in preparation forflu season.
Though seen as harmless, the flu virus may actually belife-threatening to the elderly due to the degrading of the immune response.There are three different ways that the flu vaccine is made. The first and mostcommon way is egg-based flu vaccines. This is used to make both the inactivevaccine, called the flu shot, and the live attenuated flu vaccine, also knownas a nasal spray. The production is started by providing private sectormanufacturers with the candidate vaccine viruses. The candidate vaccine virusesare then injected into fertilized hen’s eggs.
The virus replicates itself overa time period of a couple days. The fluid containing the virus is then takenout of eggs and the virus antigen is purified and tested. The vaccine isapproved and then released to the world. The second way to create the fluvaccine is with cell-based flu vaccines.
First, cell-grown candidate vaccine virusesare treated in cultured mammalian cells and replicate over a few days. Thevirus-containing fluid is collected from the cells, and the antigen is purifiedand tested until release. The third and final approved method are recombinantflu vaccines. It starts with isolating a certain protein from a vaccine viruswhich will be combined with another virus that grows well in insect cells. Thenew vaccine is combined with insect cells and replicates over a period of a fewdays.
The protein is taken from the insect cells and packaged and purified. The flu vaccine is not always effective. This canbe for a number of reasons, but the main one is the flu virus is most mutatingviruses out there. The virus can change to a point that memory cells will nolonger recognize it. More reasons for it failing is that you can contract theflu virus too quickly, or you can contract the flu virus after too much timehas passed between the vaccination and infection.
The vaccine will not remaineffective for long periods of time. The memory cell’s lifetime is not infinite.If you get the flu virus before two weeks after the vaccination it will not beeffective. Your body has not had enough time to develop an immune response.Many life-threatening diseases have been preventedfrom causing outbreaks using vaccines.
Over 14 childhood diseases now can betreated with vaccines. Some diseases are harder to solve. An example of this isHIV.
When someone is infected with HIV, your body does not create the sameimmune response that it would with a regular virus. HIV attacks helper T cellswhich are responsible for most of the immune response. Helper T cells also helpin creating memory cells which remember the disease. The virus kills the cellsthat a vaccine would induce to create an immune response.
Anti-vaccinationmovements have been around for a long time, even dating back to the time ofsmallpox in England. The Vaccination Acts of 1853 and 1867 required children toreceive vaccines after Edward Jenner had created them. In response to this TheAnti Vaccination League, Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, and manyanti-vaccination journals were created as a backlash. These anti-vaccinationmovements are dangerous though. Viruses or bacteria begin to become immunizedif the amount of people vaccinated in a population is high enough. An examplecan be polio.
Polio was slowly becoming obsolete once about 70% of thepopulation had their vaccines. The percentage is relative though, as lesscontagious diseases would need fewer people to be immunized in order for thespread to slow. The reasons that people choose for their children or themselvesnot to get vaccines are based on misinformed decisions. Some of these reasonsinclude that people believe that if the disease isn’t common, then there is noreason to be afraid. Other decisions are based on fear. Since 1998, vaccineshave been speculated to cause autism.
This is based on little evidence, yet thefear of getting autism causes many people to avoid vaccines. Without vaccines,many diseases thought to be under control could appear again, just like thepreviously mentioned measles. Diseases that cause death and destruction. Inorder to fight these accusations, more reliable and scientifically provedinformation needs to be provided to people so they will not have fear ofvaccines, something that can save their lives.