Another embryos to achieve successful maturity (Gruber and

Topic: EnvironmentNatural Disasters
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Last updated: March 13, 2019

Another stressor that greatly impacts embryodevelopment is the use of culture media. Its goal is to enhance its probabilityof developing embryos to achieve successful maturity (Gruber and Klein, 2011).

A culture medium is considered to be a foreign environment for theestablishment of an embryo. Thus, the design underlying the media is severelycomplicated because the components within must be selected whilst maintainingtheir determined concentrations in an attempt to minimize stress for thecultured embryo (Gruber and Klein, 2011). Within the reproductive tract, theembryo is likely to be exposed to autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mediators.Conversely, paracrine and endocrine embryotrophic mediators are excluded fromculture in simple defined medium (Gandolfi et. al., 1994). A review by Morbeck et. al.

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suggested that,”culture without protein is a definite prerequisite to effectively ascertainthe ability of culture medium to support embryo development because protein isknown to have significant undefined and defined variability” (Morbeck et. al.2014). Protein consists of unknown components that could alleviate deficienciesproduced by certain media formulations (Morbeck et. al. 2014). Although culturemedia have improved over the last two decades, they still activatesignificantly more stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) such as SAPK/JNK(Xie, Puscheck and Rappolee, 2006). Media increases SAPK/JNK phosphorylationand these levels negatively correlate with embryonic development (Wang et.

al.,2005). Stress tests for SAPK/JNK phosphorylation may be conducted to new mediain attempt to control the established medium (Wang et. al., 2005). It’spossible to use SAPK/JNK inhibitors to prevent stress induced cultures andsignificantly reduce apoptosis and embryo toxicity (Xie, Puscheck and Rappolee,2006).

Summers and Biggers (2003) suggested that,”manufacturers of human embryo culture media follow either the ‘back to nature’sequential or the ‘let the embryo choose’ global single-step philosophy oran empirical optimization approach” (Summers and Biggers, 2003). There isn’tany evidence to suggest which media is preferably better, however, depending onthe culture system and other factors, there can be a preference. Table 1highlights the importance of both mediums in relation to embryonic development.


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