ANSWER direction of the field and the middle



Working principle of Generators

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Generator plays a vital role in power system.
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction forms the working principle of
electrical generator, which states that, EMF generated in a conductor which is
placed in varying magnetic field. In a generator a uniform magnetic field is
generated and a prime mover is employed to create uniform motion and thus producing


Function of Generators

have many functions, the primary function being generating power.The generated
power is transmitted by transmission line and distributed using distribution
system. Their function also includes maintain the frequency in the grid, not
maintaining the frequency may have catastrophic effects on the grid.


Laws of electromagnetic induction


First Law

first law states that, any change in magnetic field causes an EMF in a
conductor which is placed in a magnetic field. 


Second Law

second law states that the induced EMF is equal to the change in flux linkages.


Flemings Right Hand

 When fromclenched
Right Hand, thumb, index finger and middle finger are opened in such a way that
all three fingers are perpendicular to each other. Then, the thumb denoted the
direction of motion,Index finger denotes the direction of the field and the
middle finger denotes the direction of current.



 Production of EMF in coil one which is
magnetically coupled with coil two, when there is a change in current in coil two
is called mutual induction.


EMF produced is given by

We know that,






Transformer Voltage Ratio

 Transformer voltage ratio or turn’s ratio is
the ratioof number secondary turns to primary turns. The ratio determines
whether the transformer is either step up or step down.  Ratio is also given by the ratio of secondary
voltage to primary voltage thus also called voltage ratio turn’s ratio or voltage
ratio is used for designing the Transformers.




Reactive Power

Power is the power consumed by AC circuits is not in phase with the
voltage. When the current passes through a capacitor and inductor the power is
stored and released alternatingly, creating an illusion that the element is not
consuming power. But in reality they have voltage drop across them capacitors indicating
a power called reactive power. Capacitor generate reactive power while
inductors consume reactive power. Reactive power is unavoidable in an AC


Causes of Low Power Factor In Electrical System

 The main source of low power
factor are inductive loads as a pure inductive load lag current by 90 degree
from voltage. Andthus reducing the power factor but completely avoiding
inductive load is impossible. As every wire has inductance.


Improving Power Factori

 Power factor improvement is very
important and there are various ways to improve power factor.


 Employing Capacitors

 Purely inductive loads causes
current to lag by 90 degrees and capacitors causecurrent to leadby 90 degrees by
connecting capacitors in parallel to the electrical system power factor can be


Synchronous Condensers

 An unloaded three phase
synchronous motor has capacity to run on any power factor, leading lagging on
unity depending on the excitation. Thus Buy running synchronous Motors in over-excited
mode cause an increase in reactive power or improve power factor.


 Phase Advancer

 Induction motor cause lagging
current as the exciting current is inductive in nature. If the excitation current
is produced by an external source called the phase advancer, the power factor
can be improved.








Linear Loads



 Linear load is highly stable as
there is no disturbance or harmonics caused by them.  The system can reach equilibrium when there
is any disturbance easily, as the current varies linearly with voltage.



 They have high efficiency as
there is no or less phase difference between voltage and current are there is no
or less reactive power from the formula.


 We can thus conclude that the
efficiency is high


Power Factor

 The power factor for Linear load
is one or close to 1 they are high, as the linear loads have current and
voltage varying proportionally they produce no or less phase shift thus maximum
power factor.


Non-Linear Loads


 The stability of the system is
less as nonlinear systems have current varying from voltage nonlinearly usually
having spikes.  Thus causes transient in
the system and makes the overall system unstable.



 Efficiency is comparatively low
as the reactive power comes into the picture, due to the bearing variation of
current from voltage. Which reduces real power and decreases the transmission


Power Factor

 The power factor is also
negatively affected power factor fluctuates as the current varies with the
voltage. When the current lead or lag the power factor reduces or increases.











Power Industry Trends in Indiaii


 When it comes to power industry
India has seen a continuous growth.



Power in the past, like about a hundred years ago, was not as widely
used it as it is now. Butstill Electricity was used, usually they had
microgrids. Power was introduced in India 10 years after it was introduced in
London and 17 years after it was introduced in New York. The first hydroelectric
generator was Sidraony power station in Darjeeling with capacity of 130
kilowatts, then other energy sources like thermal power and wind energy came



Theintroduction of nuclear power was a big change in power
industry.  Although there is a
controversy on whether the nuclear power is good or bad.  It is undeniably an advantage when it comes
to the power generation.There is also increase in Wind and solar energy though
we have less efficiency.



 In future India’s consumption of
power will become independent of non-renewable energy, as it is a long known
agenda to make India a green country. There will also be new technologies in
future which will improve the efficiency of solar cells bringing it to 80%-90%
from the present 30%-40%.





Impacts of power generation when employing coal as fossil fuel. iii

Employing coal as fossil fuel has various adverse effects on human and
Earth. India uses coal for satisfying 61% of its power need.


Burning of coal causes various health problems.

Beginning with the extraction of coal, a process
called as mountaintop extraction, trees in the entire mountain is cut down,
killing the animals and destroying the ecosystem. 

The coal is extracted by blasting the top using
dynamite which causes thousands of tons of waste which gets mixed with the
stream contaminating drinking water.

They also create smog dust which causes asthma
and various breathing problems.

The health effects alone costs 100 billion
dollars in USA.

Mercury is a waste that is produced as a by-product,
it damages nervous system causing underdevelopment, when babies and young
children areinfected.

When mercury is released in water supplies
fishes consume it, which affects human seafood.

Every year coal power plants generate a 140
million tons as cool as which are dumped in pits across the world.

Living near coal Ash is same as smoking a pack
of cigarettes every day.


It is important that we understand the consequences of coal in power
generation, we must reduce coal in power generation and turn towards Clean
Energy like solar energy wind energy.



All Installed Generating Capacity (2015)






Benefits of Solar Energy

Solar energy is water conservation.

Solar energy in any form requires very less or
no water in its production.

Solar energy is green and does not require
cutting down of any trees, solar plants and trees can grow side by side.

The amount of energy received per minute is
enough to power the human Civilization for 6 years.

Solar panels are made of silicon which are found
abandoned in nature. 

There are large deserts where solar panels can
be placed to increase the efficiency of the energy production.

There are new technologies like concentrated
solar plants which can also be employed to increase the efficiency.

There is area for Research and improvement on
solar cells in future.


 The Utilisation of Solar Energy
Is Limited By the Following Factors

Solar cell production is expensive as it require
Silver which is precious metal also the productionhas to be done in clean

Today modern technology has only come for enough
to make the solar cells 20 to 30% efficient.

We do not know the effects of harnessing solar
energy in large quantity as the ground may not receive the amount of solar
energy which is usually received from the Sun.

Availability of solar energy 24 hours is not possible.

Solar energy is moody as it depends on climate
which is unpredictable.






Chernobyl iv

The nuclear plant is located in. Soviet Union
(Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic)

nuclear Plant was commissioned on 1977 and accident occurred on 26th of April

International nuclear event scale agency gave
level 7 it was the first plant to get level seven.

Theplant operated for 9 years giving a net
electrical power of 3700MWe, and had RBMK-1000 Reactor.

The maximum radiation detected was 300sv/h and
affected area of 500 kilometres and relocated 335,000 people.

There were 169 direct fatalities, the plant
decommissioning process began in 2016.

The accident was caused by human error violation
of procedure running unauthorised experiment, by an improperexperiment the
plant became prompt critical causing a blast with in the reactor.




Fukushima Daiichi

The nuclear plant is located in Japan.

nuclear Plant was commissioned on 1971 and accident occurred on 11th of March

International nuclear event scale agency gave
level 7.

Theplant operated for 40 years giving a net
electrical power of 4564MWe, and had BWR-3 and BWR-4 reactors with mark 1
containment vessel.

The maximum radiation detected was 200sv/h and
affected area of 40 kilometres andrelocated 150,400 people.

There was no direct fatalities, the plant
decommissioning process will take 30 to 40 years.

the accident was caused by a large Tsunami which
the nuclear power plant was not designed to handle the tsunami destroyed the
cooling system and the backup power supply 
passing a partial meltdown












Benefits of Using Natural Gas for Power Generation


It Is Environment

They are the best available fossil fuelavailable when it comes to clean
burning. The burning is adequate and the toxic by-product is very less. Modern
technologies have reduced the nitrogen oxide which is emitted by natural gas.


 Safer andEasier Storage

 it is easy to store the gas, they
can be compressed to form a liquid it can be stored,over ground or underground
this makes it an efficient energy resource moreover the existing pipelines can
be employed transports gas there’s no need for construction of a new gas system.


Natural Gas Is

 as Natural gas is found
underground it is a lot more reliable than any other energy source as they are
not disturbed by any disaster both natural and manmade. that makes it a
reliable source


It Is Less Expensive
Compared To Other For Fossil Fuel.

It is much cheaper than any other fossil fuel and the advancement of
Technology in storing and transportation of natural gas how is made then even
more cheaper


 Natural Gas Is Abundant In Supply

There is more gas than any other or fossil fuel US alone has 100 years of
natural gas not accounting the untouched resource. We may not be renewable but
they are abundant in nature.


 Reduce Dependency on Foreign Oil

Reduce dependency on foreign countries for oil which are used for power
generation as our countries has more natural gas, making us less dependent on
other countries.



















Developed countries Australia are increasing the use of natural gas in
power generation considering their advantages






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