ANSWER 1 Working principle of GeneratorsGenerator plays a vital role in power system.
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction forms the working principle ofelectrical generator, which states that, EMF generated in a conductor which isplaced in varying magnetic field. In a generator a uniform magnetic field isgenerated and a prime mover is employed to create uniform motion and thus producingelectricity. Function of GeneratorsGeneratorshave many functions, the primary function being generating power.The generatedpower is transmitted by transmission line and distributed using distributionsystem. Their function also includes maintain the frequency in the grid, notmaintaining the frequency may have catastrophic effects on the grid. Laws of electromagnetic induction First Law Faraday’sfirst law states that, any change in magnetic field causes an EMF in aconductor which is placed in a magnetic field. Second Law Faraday’ssecond law states that the induced EMF is equal to the change in flux linkages. Flemings Right HandRule When fromclenchedRight Hand, thumb, index finger and middle finger are opened in such a way thatall three fingers are perpendicular to each other.
Then, the thumb denoted thedirection of motion,Index finger denotes the direction of the field and themiddle finger denotes the direction of current. MutualInduction Production of EMF in coil one which ismagnetically coupled with coil two, when there is a change in current in coil twois called mutual induction. EMF produced is given byWe know that, Transformer Voltage Ratio Transformer voltage ratio or turn’s ratio isthe ratioof number secondary turns to primary turns. The ratio determineswhether the transformer is either step up or step down. Ratio is also given by the ratio of secondaryvoltage to primary voltage thus also called voltage ratio turn’s ratio or voltageratio is used for designing the Transformers. ANSWER 2 Reactive PowerPower is the power consumed by AC circuits is not in phase with thevoltage.
When the current passes through a capacitor and inductor the power isstored and released alternatingly, creating an illusion that the element is notconsuming power. But in reality they have voltage drop across them capacitors indicatinga power called reactive power. Capacitor generate reactive power whileinductors consume reactive power. Reactive power is unavoidable in an ACcircuit. Causes of Low Power Factor In Electrical System The main source of low powerfactor are inductive loads as a pure inductive load lag current by 90 degreefrom voltage.
Andthus reducing the power factor but completely avoidinginductive load is impossible. As every wire has inductance. Improving Power Factori Power factor improvement is veryimportant and there are various ways to improve power factor. Employing Capacitors Purely inductive loads causescurrent to lag by 90 degrees and capacitors causecurrent to leadby 90 degrees byconnecting capacitors in parallel to the electrical system power factor can beimproved Synchronous Condensers An unloaded three phasesynchronous motor has capacity to run on any power factor, leading lagging onunity depending on the excitation.
Thus Buy running synchronous Motors in over-excitedmode cause an increase in reactive power or improve power factor. Phase Advancer Induction motor cause laggingcurrent as the exciting current is inductive in nature. If the excitation currentis produced by an external source called the phase advancer, the power factorcan be improved. ANSWER 3 Linear Loads Stability Linear load is highly stable asthere is no disturbance or harmonics caused by them. The system can reach equilibrium when thereis any disturbance easily, as the current varies linearly with voltage.
Efficiency They have high efficiency asthere is no or less phase difference between voltage and current are there is noor less reactive power from the formula.Where, We can thus conclude that theefficiency is high Power Factor The power factor for Linear loadis one or close to 1 they are high, as the linear loads have current andvoltage varying proportionally they produce no or less phase shift thus maximumpower factor. Non-Linear LoadsStability The stability of the system isless as nonlinear systems have current varying from voltage nonlinearly usuallyhaving spikes. Thus causes transient inthe system and makes the overall system unstable. Efficiency Efficiency is comparatively lowas the reactive power comes into the picture, due to the bearing variation ofcurrent from voltage. Which reduces real power and decreases the transmissionline. Power Factor The power factor is alsonegatively affected power factor fluctuates as the current varies with thevoltage.
When the current lead or lag the power factor reduces or increases. ANSWER 4 Power Industry Trends in Indiaii When it comes to power industryIndia has seen a continuous growth. PastPower in the past, like about a hundred years ago, was not as widelyused it as it is now.
Butstill Electricity was used, usually they hadmicrogrids. Power was introduced in India 10 years after it was introduced inLondon and 17 years after it was introduced in New York. The first hydroelectricgenerator was Sidraony power station in Darjeeling with capacity of 130kilowatts, then other energy sources like thermal power and wind energy cameup. Present Theintroduction of nuclear power was a big change in powerindustry. Although there is acontroversy on whether the nuclear power is good or bad. It is undeniably an advantage when it comesto the power generation.There is also increase in Wind and solar energy thoughwe have less efficiency. Future In future India’s consumption ofpower will become independent of non-renewable energy, as it is a long knownagenda to make India a green country.
There will also be new technologies infuture which will improve the efficiency of solar cells bringing it to 80%-90%from the present 30%-40%. ANSWER 5 Impacts of power generation when employing coal as fossil fuel. iiiEmploying coal as fossil fuel has various adverse effects on human andEarth. India uses coal for satisfying 61% of its power need. · Burning of coal causes various health problems. · Beginning with the extraction of coal, a processcalled as mountaintop extraction, trees in the entire mountain is cut down,killing the animals and destroying the ecosystem. · The coal is extracted by blasting the top usingdynamite which causes thousands of tons of waste which gets mixed with thestream contaminating drinking water. · They also create smog dust which causes asthmaand various breathing problems.
· The health effects alone costs 100 billiondollars in USA.· Mercury is a waste that is produced as a by-product,it damages nervous system causing underdevelopment, when babies and youngchildren areinfected. · When mercury is released in water suppliesfishes consume it, which affects human seafood.
· Every year coal power plants generate a 140million tons as cool as which are dumped in pits across the world.· Living near coal Ash is same as smoking a packof cigarettes every day. It is important that we understand the consequences of coal in powergeneration, we must reduce coal in power generation and turn towards CleanEnergy like solar energy wind energy. All Installed Generating Capacity (2015) ANSWER 6 Benefits of Solar Energy· Solar energy is water conservation. · Solar energy in any form requires very less orno water in its production. · Solar energy is green and does not requirecutting down of any trees, solar plants and trees can grow side by side. · The amount of energy received per minute isenough to power the human Civilization for 6 years.
· Solar panels are made of silicon which are foundabandoned in nature. · There are large deserts where solar panels canbe placed to increase the efficiency of the energy production.· There are new technologies like concentratedsolar plants which can also be employed to increase the efficiency. · There is area for Research and improvement onsolar cells in future. The Utilisation of Solar EnergyIs Limited By the Following Factors· Solar cell production is expensive as it requireSilver which is precious metal also the productionhas to be done in cleanrooms.· Today modern technology has only come for enoughto make the solar cells 20 to 30% efficient. · We do not know the effects of harnessing solarenergy in large quantity as the ground may not receive the amount of solarenergy which is usually received from the Sun.· Availability of solar energy 24 hours is not possible.
· Solar energy is moody as it depends on climatewhich is unpredictable. ANSWER 7 Chernobyl iv· The nuclear plant is located in. Soviet Union(Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic)· Thisnuclear Plant was commissioned on 1977 and accident occurred on 26th of April1986. · International nuclear event scale agency gavelevel 7 it was the first plant to get level seven.· Theplant operated for 9 years giving a netelectrical power of 3700MWe, and had RBMK-1000 Reactor.· The maximum radiation detected was 300sv/h andaffected area of 500 kilometres and relocated 335,000 people. · There were 169 direct fatalities, the plantdecommissioning process began in 2016.· The accident was caused by human error violationof procedure running unauthorised experiment, by an improperexperiment theplant became prompt critical causing a blast with in the reactor.
Fukushima Daiichi· The nuclear plant is located in Japan.· Thisnuclear Plant was commissioned on 1971 and accident occurred on 11th of March2011. · International nuclear event scale agency gavelevel 7.
· Theplant operated for 40 years giving a netelectrical power of 4564MWe, and had BWR-3 and BWR-4 reactors with mark 1containment vessel.· The maximum radiation detected was 200sv/h andaffected area of 40 kilometres andrelocated 150,400 people. · There was no direct fatalities, the plantdecommissioning process will take 30 to 40 years.
· the accident was caused by a large Tsunami whichthe nuclear power plant was not designed to handle the tsunami destroyed thecooling system and the backup power supply passing a partial meltdown ANSWER 8v Benefits of Using Natural Gas for Power Generation It Is EnvironmentFriendlyThey are the best available fossil fuelavailable when it comes to cleanburning. The burning is adequate and the toxic by-product is very less. Moderntechnologies have reduced the nitrogen oxide which is emitted by natural gas. Safer andEasier Storage it is easy to store the gas, theycan be compressed to form a liquid it can be stored,over ground or undergroundthis makes it an efficient energy resource moreover the existing pipelines canbe employed transports gas there’s no need for construction of a new gas system.
Natural Gas IsReliable as Natural gas is foundunderground it is a lot more reliable than any other energy source as they arenot disturbed by any disaster both natural and manmade. that makes it areliable source It Is Less ExpensiveCompared To Other For Fossil Fuel. It is much cheaper than any other fossil fuel and the advancement ofTechnology in storing and transportation of natural gas how is made then evenmore cheaper Natural Gas Is Abundant In SupplyThere is more gas than any other or fossil fuel US alone has 100 years ofnatural gas not accounting the untouched resource. We may not be renewable butthey are abundant in nature.
Reduce Dependency on Foreign OilReduce dependency on foreign countries for oil which are used for powergeneration as our countries has more natural gas, making us less dependent onother countries. Developed countries Australia are increasing the use of natural gas inpower generation considering their advantages