# ANSWER ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage

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Last updated: March 20, 2019

ANSWER 1 Working principle of GeneratorsGenerator plays a vital role in power system.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction forms the working principle ofelectrical generator, which states that, EMF generated in a conductor which isplaced in varying magnetic field. In a generator a uniform magnetic field isgenerated and a prime mover is employed to create uniform motion and thus producingelectricity.  Function of Generators Generatorshave many functions, the primary function being generating power. The generatedpower is transmitted by transmission line and distributed using distributionsystem. Their function also includes maintain the frequency in the grid, notmaintaining the frequency may have catastrophic effects on the grid.

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Laws of electromagnetic induction First Law Faraday’sfirst law states that, any change in magnetic field causes an EMF in aconductor which is placed in a magnetic field.   Second Law Faraday’ssecond law states that the induced EMF is equal to the change in flux linkages.  FlemingsRight Hand Rule When fromclenched Right Hand, thumb, index finger and middle finger are opened in such away that all three fingers are perpendicular to each other.

Then, the thumbdenoted the direction of motion, Index finger denotes the direction of thefield and the middle finger denotes the direction of current. Mutual Induction  Production of EMF in coil one which ismagnetically coupled with coil two, when there is a change in current in coil twois called mutual induction. EMF produced is given byWe know that,     Transformer Voltage Ratio Transformer voltage ratio or turn’s ratio isthe ratio of number secondary turns to primary turns. The ratio determineswhether the transformer is either step up or step down.  Ratio is also given by the ratio of secondaryvoltage to primary voltage thus also called voltage ratio turn’s ratio or voltageratio is used for designing the Transformers. ANSWER 2 Reactive PowerPower is the power consumed by AC circuits is not in phase with thevoltage.

When the current passes through a capacitor and inductor the power isstored and released alternatingly, creating an illusion that the element is notconsuming power. But in reality they have voltage drop across them capacitors indicatinga power called reactive power. Capacitor generate reactive power whileinductors consume reactive power. Reactive power is unavoidable in an ACcircuit.  Causes of Low Power Factor In Electrical System The main source of low powerfactor are inductive loads as a pure inductive load lag current by 90 degreefrom voltage. And thus reducing the power factor but completely avoidinginductive load is impossible. As every wire has inductance. Improving Power Factori Power factor improvement is veryimportant and there are various ways to improve power factor.

EmployingCapacitors Purely inductive loads causescurrent to lag by 90 degrees and capacitors cause current to lead by 90 degreesby connecting capacitors in parallel to the electrical system power factor canbe improved  SynchronousCondensers An unloaded three phasesynchronous motor has capacity to run on any power factor, leading lagging onunity depending on the excitation. Thus Buy running synchronous Motors in over-excitedmode cause an increase in reactive power or improve power factor.  Phase Advancer Induction motor cause laggingcurrent as the exciting current is inductive in nature. If the excitationcurrent is produced by an external source called the phase advancer, the powerfactor can be improved.       ANSWER 3 Linear Loads  Stability Linear load is highly stable asthere is no disturbance or harmonics caused by them.

The system can reach equilibrium when thereis any disturbance easily, as the current varies linearly with voltage.  Efficiency They have high efficiency asthere is no or less phase difference between voltage and current are there is noor less reactive power from the formula.Where, We can thus conclude that theefficiency is high  PowerFactor The power factor for Linear loadis one or close to 1 they are high, as the linear loads have current andvoltage varying proportionally they produce no or less phase shift thus maximumpower factor.  Non-Linear Loads Stability The stability of the system isless as nonlinear systems have current varying from voltage nonlinearly usuallyhaving spikes.  Thus causes transient inthe system and makes the overall system unstable.

Efficiency Efficiency is comparatively lowas the reactive power comes into the picture, due to the bearing variation ofcurrent from voltage. Which reduces real power and decreases the transmissionline.   PowerFactor The power factor is alsonegatively affected power factor fluctuates as the current varies with thevoltage. When the current lead or lag the power factor reduces or increases.        ANSWER 4 Power Industry Trends in Indiaii  When it comes to power industryIndia has seen a continuous growth.  PastPower in the past, like about a hundred years ago, was not as widelyused it as it is now. But still Electricity was used, usually they hadmicrogrids. Power was introduced in India 10 years after it was introduced inLondon and 17 years after it was introduced in New York.

The first hydroelectricgenerator was Sidraony power station in Darjeeling with capacity of 130kilowatts, then other energy sources like thermal power and wind energy cameup.   Present The introduction of nuclear power was a big change in powerindustry.  Although there is acontroversy on whether the nuclear power is good or bad.

It is undeniably an advantage when it comesto the power generation. There is also increase in Wind and solar energy thoughwe have less efficiency.   Future In future India’s consumption ofpower will become independent of non-renewable energy, as it is a long knownagenda to make India a green country. There will also be new technologies infuture which will improve the efficiency of solar cells bringing it to 80%-90%from the present 30%-40%.

ANSWER 5 Impacts of power generation when employing coal as fossil fuel. iiiEmploying coal as fossil fuel has various adverse effects on human andEarth. India uses coal for satisfying 61% of its power need. ·        Burning of coal causes various health problems. ·        Beginning with the extraction of coal, a process called as mountaintopextraction, trees in the entire mountain is cut down, killing the animals anddestroying the ecosystem.  ·        The coal is extracted by blasting the top using dynamite which causesthousands of tons of waste which gets mixed with the stream contaminating drinkingwater. ·        They also create smog dust which causes asthma and various breathingproblems. ·        The health effects alone costs 100 billion dollars in USA.

·        Mercury is a waste that is produced as a by-product, it damages nervoussystem causing underdevelopment, when babies and young children are infected. ·        When mercury is released in water supplies fishes consume it, whichaffects human seafood. ·        Every year coal power plants generate a 140 million tons as cool aswhich are dumped in pits across the world.·        Living near coal Ash is same as smoking a pack of cigarettes every day. It is important that we understand the consequences of coal in powergeneration, we must reduce coal in power generation and turn towards CleanEnergy like solar energy wind energy.  All Installed Generating Capacity (2015)   ANSWER 6 Benefits of Solar Energy·        Solar energy is water conservation. ·        Solar energy in any form requires very less or no water in itsproduction. ·        Solar energy is green and does not require cutting down of any trees,solar plants and trees can grow side by side.

·        The amount of energy received per minute is enough to power the humanCivilization for 6 years. ·        Solar panels are made of silicon which are found abandoned innature.  ·        There are large deserts where solar panels can be placed to increase theefficiency of the energy production.·         There are new technologies likeconcentrated solar plants which can also be employed to increase theefficiency. ·        There is area for Research and improvement on solar cells in future.  The Utilisation of Solar EnergyIs Limited By the Following Factors·        Solar cell production is expensive as it require Silver which is preciousmetal also the production has to be done in clean rooms.

·         Today modern technology has onlycome for enough to make the solar cells 20 to 30% efficient. ·        We do not know the effects of harnessing solar energy in large quantityas the ground may not receive the amount of solar energy which is usuallyreceived from the Sun.·         Availability of solar energy 24hours is not possible.·         Solar energy is moody as itdepends on climate which is unpredictable.  ANSWER 7  Chernobyl iv·        The nuclear plant is located in. Soviet Union (Ukrainian SovietSocialist Republic)·         This nuclear Plant wascommissioned on 1977 and accident occurred on 26th of April 1986. ·        International nuclear event scale agency gave level 7 it was the firstplant to get level seven.·        The plant operated for 9 years giving a net electrical power of 3700MWe,and had RBMK-1000 Reactor.

·        The maximum radiation detected was 300sv/h and affected area of 500kilometres and relocated 335,000 people. ·        There were 169 direct fatalities, the plant decommissioning processbegan in 2016.·         The accident was caused by humanerror violation of procedure running unauthorised experiment, by an improper experimentthe plant became prompt critical causing a blast with in the reactor.   Fukushima Daiichi·        The nuclear plant is located in Japan.·         This nuclear Plant wascommissioned on 1971 and accident occurred on 11th of March 2011. ·        International nuclear event scale agency gave level 7.

·        The plant operated for 40 years giving a net electrical power of 4564MWe,and had BWR-3 and BWR-4 reactors with mark 1 containment vessel.·        The maximum radiation detected was 200sv/h and affected area of 40kilometres and relocated 150,400 people. ·        There was no direct fatalities, the plant decommissioning process willtake 30 to 40 years.·        the accident was caused by a large Tsunami which the nuclear power plantwas not designed to handle the tsunami destroyed the cooling system and thebackup power supply  passing a partialmeltdown         ANSWER 8v Benefits of Using Natural Gas for Power Generation It Is Environment Friendly They are the best availablefossil fuel available when it comes to clean burning. The burning is adequateand the toxic by-product is very less. Modern technologies have reduced thenitrogen oxide which is emitted by natural gas.  Safer andEasier Storage it is easy to store the gas, theycan be compressed to form a liquid it can be stored, over ground or undergroundthis makes it an efficient energy resource moreover the existing pipelines canbe employed transports gas there’s no need for construction of a new gas system.

NaturalGas Is Reliable as Natural gas is foundunderground it is a lot more reliable than any other energy source as they arenot disturbed by any disaster both natural and manmade. that makes it areliable source It Is Less Expensive Compared To Other ForFossil Fuel.  It is much cheaper than any otherfossil fuel and the advancement of Technology in storing and transportation ofnatural gas how is made then even more cheaper  NaturalGas Is Abundant In Supply There is more gas than any otheror fossil fuel US alone has 100 years of natural gas not accounting theuntouched resource. We may not be renewable but they are abundant in nature.  ReduceDependency on Foreign Oil Reduce dependency on foreigncountries for oil which are used for power generation as our countries has morenatural gas, making us less dependent on other countries.

Developed countries Australia are increasing the use of natural gas inpower generation considering their advantages                          i “Power Factor | Calculation andPower Factor Improvement”.Internet: https://www.electrical4u.com/electrical-power-factor/ 28/1/2018 iiSandhya Madan, Swetha Manimuthu and Thiruvengadam S.

” History of electric power in India (1890 – 1990)”,inIEEE Conference on the History of Electric Power, 2007, pp.152-165.  iii NationalSierraClub.”Coal 101: What’s Wrong with Coal?”.Internet: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Wv2GKaukZU28/1/2018  iv “Comparison of Fukushima andChernobyl nuclear accidents”.Internet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Fukushima_and_Chernobyl_nuclear_accidents 28/1/2018  v Rinkesh.”Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas”.Internet: https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-natural-gas.php28/1/2018