Antibiotics act a vital role in modern agriculture and livestock as wellas in poultry industries and their use has been on the rise in many developednations. The major uses of antibiotics in recent years is to enhancegrowth performance, improve gut health, reduce sub-clinical infection,anti-inflammatory, control diseases and support intestinal health in livestockas well as poultry by preserving microbial populations in check resulting inenlarged nutrient availability (Levy,1992; Engberg et al., 2000). Twelveclasses of antimicrobials—arsenicals, polypeptides, glycolipids, tetracyclines,elfamycins, macrolides, lincosamides, polyethers, beta-lactams, quinoxalines, streptogramins,and sulfonamides may be used at different times in the life cycle of poultry,cattle, and swine (Sarmah et al., 2006). The most of antibiotics used in are water-soluble which poorly absorbedby the gut of animals, remained about 30–90% of parent compound are excreted inurine and up to 75% in feces (Elmund et al.
, 1971; Alcock et al., 1999; Halling,2001). Those secreted antibiotics spread out into environment and may cause in developingantibiotic-resistant microbial populations (Witte, 1998).
Antibiotic-resistantbacteria of animal have been mostly presented at farm areas as well as onanimal products (i.e., meat, eggs,…) as well as cause clinical infections andsubclinical colonization in humans (Landers et al., 2012). Since the early 1950s, the indiscriminate use ofantibiotics as feed additives in commercial farming may have developedbacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Concerns over the increasing incidence ofbacterial resistance to antibiotics in animal and human have caused increaseworldwide interesting in eliminating the sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics inlivestock. In addition, some groups of consumers prefer animal products as wellas poultry meat with free-antibiotics and present a restriction on theconsumption of poultry meat raised with diets containing antibiotics (Loddi et al. 2000). In some countries (such as thosein the EU), the use of AGP has been discontinued, and some Asian countries arebeginning to follow the EU in banning AGP.
All antibiotics growth promoter(AGP) were banned by Sweden in 1986, Denmark in 1998, the European Union in1999 (Mark Casewell et al., 2003), and South Korea in 2005 (Ministry for Food,Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries).