make sure you illustrate an idea with appropriate and relevant examples that don’t stray from the topic. ask yourself: are the examples relevant? do they support just my side of the argument?
makes the material easier for someone to understand because classification is basically organization. Makes your points easier to analyze and explain, avoid classifications that overlap, classify before you write
comparison and contrast
need to have commonalities to justify comparison or contrast, select the points of comparison or contrast and present them by starting with classification, write about the two things in the same paragraph, present them before confusing the reader with examples
comparison used to explain something, explain things that are difficult to understand by comparing them with things that are easier to understand, use only in expository (explanation) writing, NOT in argumentative, persuasive writing.
use when you want to explain either how to do something or how something was done, make sure steps are chronological, use transitions, avoid too-specialized terms, don’t skip intermediate steps
cause and effect
explains why things should be or should have been done, use carefully chosen examples, not all causal relationships are cause and effects, address each step in a series of causal relationships
define specialized terminology and obscure words by putting it in a category in terms that everyone will understand, keep your reasoning for defining in mind while you are writing, don’t define terms unnecessarily, combine definition with other rhetorical modes
use in expository or argumentative writing, typically used to communicate a scene, place, or person, appeal to all of the reader’s senses, not just sight. put striking examples at beginning or end to make memorable, show don’t tell, don’t use too many adjectives, employ figures of speech, use action verbs
a story in which pieces of information are arranged in chronological order, use in expository writing, have a beginning, middle, and end.
use a realistic story, show don’t tell, establish a clear point of view
induction and deduction
induction: using specific examples to come to a general conclusiondeduction: using generalizations to draw a conclusion about a specific caseTry to avoid this by making sure you have sufficient evidence and credibility to support your claim