AP English Terms (Explication-Non-Sequitur)

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Last updated: May 4, 2019

Explication
The art of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a tect. It usually invovles close reading and special attention to figurative language.

Exposition
The immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot; also, explanation; one of the four modes of discourse.

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Extended Metaphor
A sustained comparison, often referred to as a conceit. The extended metaphor is developed throughout a piece of writing.

False Analogy
When two cases are not sufficiently parallel to lead readers to accept a claim of connection between them.

Figurative Language
Language that contains figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal.

Figures of speech
Expressions, such as similes, metaphors, and personifications, that make imaginative, rather than literal, comparisons or associations.

Foreshadowing
The use of a hint or clue to suggest a larger event that occurs late in the work.

Freight-Train
Sentence consisting of three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions.

Generalization
When a writer bases a claim upon an isolated example or asserts that a claim is certain rather than probably. Sweeping generalizations occur when a writer asserts that a claim applies to all instances instead of some.

Genre
A type of literary work, such as a novel or poem; there are also subgenres, such as science fiction or sonnet, within the larger genres

Hubris
The excessive pride of ambition that leads a tragic hero to disregard warnings of impending doom, eventually causing his or her downfall.

Humor
Anything that causes laughter or amusementl up until the end of the Renaissance, humor meant a peron’s temperament.

Hyperbole
Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis (Ex.

He was so hungry he could eat a whole horse).

Image
A word of words, either figurative or literal, used to describe a sensory experience or an object perceived by the sense. An image is always a concrete representation.

Imagery
Words or phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the five senses in order to create a mental picture.

Induction
The process that moves from a given series of specifics to a generalization.

Inference
A conclusion one can draw from the presented details.

Interior Monologue
Writing that records the conversation that occurs inside a character’s head.

Invective
A verbally abusive attack.

Inversion
Reversing the customary (subjec first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase; it is used effectively in m any cases, such as posing a question: “Are you going to the store?” Usually, the element that appears first is emphasized more than the subject.

Irony
A situation or statement in which the actual outcome or meaning is opposite to what was expected.

Jargon
The special language of a profession or group. The term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that jardon is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders.

The writings of the lawyer and the literary critic are both susceptible to jargon.

Logic
The process of reasoning.

Logical Fallacy
A mistake in reasoning.

Lyrical
Songlike; characterized by emotions, subjectivity, and imagination.

Metaphor
A figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another; for example, “my love is a fragile flower”

Metonymy
A figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated, such as using “the crown” to refer to a monarch, or “the pen is mightier than the sword”

Mode
The method of form of literary work; the manner in which a work of literature is written.

Mood
Similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work (the feeling of the work; the atmosphere).

Syntax is also a determiner of this term because sentence strength, length, and complexity affect pacing. Mood is different from tone, mood is about the emotion of the piece.

Moral
The lesson drawn from a fictional or nonfictional story. It can also mean a heavily didactic story.

Motif
Main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece; repeated pattern or idea

Narration
The telling of a story in fiction, nonfiction, poetry, or drama; one of the four modes of discourse.

Negative-Positive
Sentence that beings by stating what is NOT true, then ending by stating what is true.

Non-sequitur
Latin for “it does not follow.” When one statement isn’t logically connected to another.

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