Why is the mid-fourteenth century regarded as an era of crisis in the West?
Europe was plagued by devastating outbreaks of the plague as well as by destructive wars
Why did Jan Hus’s ideas gain such a large number of followers in Bohemia?
His ideas tapped into the resentments of the Czech majority against the dominant and largely urban German-speaking minority
By the end of the fourteenth century, Lithuania, whose rulers were the last in Europe to remain unconverted to Christianity, had:
entered into a union with Poland
In their quest to revive the cultural glory of the ancient world, Renaissance humanists focused much attention on:
classical history and literature
Individuals who sought to appease God by traveling from city to city and scourging themselves with whips were known as:
What triggered the Great Schism in 1378?
the election of Urban VI, an Italian, as pope
Why did the plague spread so rapidly on the European continent in the mid-fourteenth century?
The bacterium that likely caused the disease, Yersinia pestis, followed major trade routes to and across the continent
Which of the following is regarded as a signal innovation in Renaissance art?
the use of linear perspective
Which of the following contributed to rising prosperity in England during the fifteenth century?
the expansion of the cloth industry
An indulgence was a certificate offered by the church to:
reduce the time one spent in purgatory
Conciliarism can be understood as:
a movement to have the cardinals or the emperor convene a church council
How did warfare change during the Hundred Years’ War?
Armies became more professional and centralized
What term was used for the European Christian boys who were forced to convert to Islam and made up the core of the Ottoman army?
Why did the Great Schism inadvertently provide a boost to Renaissance composers?
Rival popes attempted to outdo one another in the realm of pageantry and sound
Under pressure from Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to resolve the Great Schism, Pope John XXIII convened a church council at Constance in 1414, which elected a new pope,
What is Francesco Petrarch best known as?
the first humanist
The political power of the Medici family of Florence stemmed from:
the wealth of the Medici bank and its involvement in papal finances
In the year 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded in reunifying Spain by conquering what kingdom on the Iberian peninsula?
The Muslim kingdom of Granada
Between 1384 and 1476, what state filled the territorial gap between France and Germany but was, unlike most other European states, an artificial creation whose existence depended entirely on skillful rulers?
What did the Oxford scholar John Wycliffe argue?
The true church was a community of believers, not an ecclesiastical hierarchy
During the late medieval period, there was both a flowering of vernacular literature and a:
revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism
Toward the end of the Hundred Years’ War, which of the following shifted support from England to France?
the duchy of Burgundy
Which of the following did the Peace of Lodi (1454) accomplish?
It put an end to the conflict between Venice and Milan that had been raging since 1450
Which of the following statements about the Swiss Confederation is true?
It was created by the cities of the Alpine region of the Holy Roman Empire
What triggered Wat Tyler’s Rebellion in 1381?
the imposition of a universal tax to raise revenue for the Hundred Years’ War
What alliance brought together many cities in northern Germany and the Baltic for the purposes of trade and defense?
The Hanseatic League
The uprising of French peasants against the nobility in the summer of 1358 was known as:
One important element of the French king’s campaign to consolidate and strengthen the monarchy was Gallicanism, which was characterized by which of the following?
Royal control over ecclesiastical revenues and the appointment of all French bishops
How did outbreaks of the plague lead to the founding of new universities in Europe?
Local princes received money and property from those who had perished, and they used this income tobecome patrons of education
Which Ottoman sultan succeeded in conquering the city of Constantinople in 1453, thus administering the deathblow to the Byzantine Empire?
At Reims, with Joan of Arc at his side, the dauphin was anointed and crowned as:
King Charles VII of France
Why did Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquisition in Spain in 1478?
Resentment was growing at the success of those Jews who had converted to Christianity
In The Defender of the Peace (1324), Marsilius of Padua stated that the:
true church consisted of the people, who should elect the pope
Which of the following initially precipitated the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)?
The French king Philip VI laid claim to Guyenne, a fief of the English king Edward III
In what way may the Hundred Years’ War be seen as a world war?
Both the English and the French hired mercenaries from other countries