A way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin or social background of the speaker.
a narrative that serves as an extended metaphor.Main purpose is to tell a story that has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have literal and figurative meanings, an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story; the underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or satiric.
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Examples: John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress (Temptations of Christians) , Orwell’s Animal Farm (Russian Revolution), and Arthur Miller’s Crucible (“Red Scare”)
the repetition of the same consonant, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound
a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature.
a technique by which a writer deliberately suggests two or more different, and sometimes conflicting, meanings in a work.
the simultaneous existence of conflicting feelings or thoughts, such as love and hate, about a person, an object, or an idea; uncertainty or indecisiveness as to what course to follow; fluctuation
something out of its proper historical time; error of putting something in the wrong historical time
repeating last word of clause at beginning of next clause
the repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences
strong anxiety and unhappiness; a feeling of dread
a critical or explanatory note or comment, especially for a literary work
The thing that opposes the protagonist in a narrative or drama. The antagonist may be another character, society itself, a force of nature, or even a conflicting impulse within the protagonist.
An unsatisfying and trivial turn of events in a literary work that occurs in place of a genuine climax. An anticlimax often involves a surprising shift in tone from the lofty or serious to the petty or ridiculous.
A statement in which two opposing ideas are balanced.
Words, phrases, clauses, or sentences set in deliberate contrast to one another. A species of parallelism, antithesis balances opposing ideas, feelings, tones, or structures, giving crisp expression to their pairing and heightening its effect.
a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life. Examples: “Early bird gets the worm.” “What goes around, comes around.
.” “People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.”
Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human
the use of deliberately old-fashioned language
An original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype
a short speech, delivered to the audience or to another character, that others onstage are not supposed to hear.
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
When the conjunctions (such as “and” or “but”) that would normally connect a string of words, phrases, or clauses are omitted from a sentence
The emotional tone or background that surrounds a scene
Any popular narrative poem, often with epic subject and usually in lyric form.
extravagantly ornate; flamboyant in style
n. excessive or trivial sentimentality; and abrupt transition in style from the elevated to the commonplace, producing a laughable effect
unrhymed poetry that has a regular rhythm and line length, especially iambic pentameter
harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony.
a pause, usually near the middle of a line of verse, usually indicated by the sense of the line, and often greater than the normal pause.
an emotional release which brings about renewal of the self or welcome relief from anxiety, tension, etc.
the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character
A figure of speech that reverses the order of words in phrases that would otherwise be structured the same. (e.g. Heaven is too great of humanity; humanity is too great for heaven)
a short poem consisting of five, usually unrhymed lines containing, respectively, two, four, six, eight, and two syllables.
Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
conversational; informal in language
A humorous scene or speech intended to lighten the mood.
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
what a word suggests beyond its surface definition
repetition of consonant sounds within words
two lines of verse that form a unit alone or as part of a poem, especially two that rhyme and have the same meter
the exact/literal meaning of a word, as found in the dictionary
an outcome or solution; the unraveling of a plot
a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words
intended to teach; inclined to teach excessively
straying from the main point
This occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.
poem or song expressing lamentation
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced for the context (“Some people prefer cats; others, dogs.”)
describes a line of poetry in which the sense and grammatical construction continues on to the next line
a feeling of utter weariness and discontent resulting from satiety or lack of interest; boredom
a long narrative poem written in elevated style which present the adventures of characters of high position and episodes that are important to the history of a race or nation
The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme.
a moment of sudden revelation or insight
a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term
a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony
the immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot; also, explanation; one of the four modes of discourse
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
ridiculous, light comedy; slapstick comedy; absurd thing; mockery
the insertion of an earlier event into the normal chronological order of a narrative
a character who is not very well developed; has few identifiable characteristics
a character whose personality and attitude contrast sharply with those of another
two or more syllables that together make up the smallest unit of rhythm in a poem
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
type or category of literary work (e.
g., poetry, essay, short story, novel, drama)
fantastic; comically hideous; strange and unnatural (causing fear or amusement)
In tragedy, the event or act that leads to the hero’s or heroine’s downfall
two lines of rhyming iambic pentameter
excessive pride or arrogance that results in the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy
a set of basic beliefs about life, culture, government, and society
a poetic foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
a line of poetry that contains five iambs (units which consist of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one, as in the word, arise). (Shakespeare)
A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line
description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between what is expected and what actually happens
based upon the actual meaning, as it meets the eye
a shorter poem expressing an emotional state in a single, unified impression
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar
a term describing poetry that uses elaborate conceits, expresses the complexities of love and life, and is highly intellectual
a comparison without using like or as
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
a speech given by one character
the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage
a lesson taught by a literary work
a principal idea, feature, theme, or element; a repeated or dominant figure in a design
An eight-line stanza.
Most commonly, octave refers to the first division of an Italian sonnet.
a long, lyrical poem, usually serious or meditative in nature
the formation of a word, as cuckoo or boom, by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent.
a figure of speech by which a locution produces an incongruous, seemingly self-contradictory effect, as in “cruel kindness” or “to make haste slowly.”
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
the repetition of words or phrases that have similar grammatical structure
a humorous imitation of a serious work
quality in drama, speech, literature, music, or events that arouses a feeling of pity or sadness
a metrical line containing five feet
The role or facade that a character assumes or depicts to a reader or other audience
giving human qualities to animals or objects
Italian 14 line poem comprised of an octave and sestet; a, b, b, a, a, b, b, a, c, d, e, c, d, e
point of view
the perspective from which a story is told
using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect
the main character
a stanza or poem of four lines, usually with alternate rhymes.
literature that attempts to represent life as it really is
a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
the art of presenting ideas in a clear, effective, and persuasive manner
a question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer
a literary movement with an emphasis on the imagination and emotions
A character who demonstrates some complexity and who develops or changes in the course of a work
sneering and often ironic language intended to hurt a person’s feelings
language or writing that exposes follies or abuses by holding them up to ridicule
a six-line stanza. Most commonly, sestet refers to the second division of an Italian sonnet.
The time and place of a story
comparison using like or as
a type of irony in which events turn out the opposite of what was expected.
a speech given by a character alone on stage
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
stream of consciousness
A literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur.
the arrangement of words in a way that best expresses the author’s individuality, idea, intent
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise (“All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.”)
something that stands for something else
the main idea of the story
the primary position taken by a writer or speaker
third person limited
told using third person language, but author may know only what the main character is thinking or feeling
third person omniscient
the narrator knows everything about the characters and various situations
The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters (e.g., serious or humorous).
A work in which the protagonist, a person of high degree, is engaged in a significant struggle and which ends in ruin or destruction
The character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy
A figure of speech that occurs when a person says one thing but means another.