a form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually harshly or bitterly critical. For example, if a teacher says to a student who sneaks into the class an hour late, “Nice of you to join us today”, the teacher is being sarcastic. Perhaps the best-known sarcasm is Johnathan Swift’s satire, A Modest Proposal. Oscar Wilde is also well known for his sarcastic statements; The Importance of being Earnest is full of them.
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a literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure. Jonathan Swift and George Orwell were masters of satire.
the analysis of verse to show its meter
the time and place of the action in a story, poem, or play. George Luca’s Star Wars opens by telling us that it was “A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away.”
also called an English sonnet; a sonnet form that divides the poem into three units of four lines each and a final unit of two lines, usually abab cdcd efef gg
another name for concrete poetry: poetry that is shaped to look like an object. John Hollander’s “A State of Nature” is shaped to look like New York State
a direct, explicit comparison of one thing to another, usually using the words like or as to draw a connection.
Charles Dickens wrote: “There was a steamy mist in all the hollows, and it had roared in its forlornness up the hill, like any evil spirit.”
a monologue in which the character in a play is alone and speaking only to himself or herself. A famous example of soliloquy is Hamlet’s “To be or Not to Be” speech
the person, not necessarily the author, who is the voice of a poem.
a section of a poem demarcated by extra line spacing. Some distinguish a stanza, a division marked by a single pattern of meter or rhyme, from a verse paragraph, a division marked by thought rather than pattern, not unlike a paragraph in prose writing. Stanzas can be identified by the number of lines.Couplet-two Tercet- Three Quatrain- Four Cinquain- Five Sestet- six Heptatich- Seven Octave- Eight
a characterization based on conscious or unconscious assumptions that some one aspect, such as gender, age, ethnic or nation identity, religion, occupation, material status and so on, are predictably accompanied by certain character traits, actions, even values.
The wicked witch in Snow White is a stereotype.
one who appears in a number of stories or plays such as the cruel stepmother the femme fatale
the organization or arrangement of the various elements in work
a distinctive manner of expression; Style includes word choice , tone, etc..
a person, place, thing, event, or pattern in a literary work that designates itself and at the same time figurative represents or stands for something else. Example “The Stick Rose” by William Blake
when a part is used to signify a whole, as in All hands on deck!
the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is sentence structure and how it influences the way the reader receives a particular piece of writing.
a verse form consisting of three-line stanzas in which the second line of each rhymes with the first and third of the next. Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind” is an example.
a generalized abstract paraphrase f the inferred central or dominant idea or concern of work; the statement a poem makes about its subject.
the attitude a literary work takes toward its subject and theme; the tenor of a piece of writing based on particular stylistic devices employed by the writer. Tone reflects the narrators attitude.
a drama in which a character (usually good and noble and of high rank) is brought to a disastrous end in his or her confrontation with a superior force.
Often the protagonist downfall is a direct result of a fatal flaw in his or her character. Examples of tragedy would include Oedipus the King, Hamlet, and The Mayor if Casterbridge.
a metrical foot in poetry that is the opposite of iambic. The first syllable is stressed and the second is not /-/-/-/. An example is “Hiawatha’s Childhood”
the third part of plot structure, the point at which the action stops rising and begins falling or reversing. Sometimes referred to as the climax.
a verse form consisting of nineteen lines divided into six stanzas- five tercets and one quatrain. The first and third line of the first tercet rhyme, and this rhyme is repeated through each of the next four tercets and in the last two lines of the concluding quatrain.
the acknowledged or unacknowledged source of words of the story; the speaker; the “person” telling the story or poem.
When referring to voice in a literary passage, you should look closely at all the elements of the author’s style and just how these elements come together in the particular piece of literature you are reading.