AP Literature and Composition Review

exposition
background information

lyric poem (three crucial elements)
reflective poetry;regular rhyme scheme and meter; portrays poet’s thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression;
Examples:
Andrew Marvel’s “To His Coy Mistress”
Emily Dickinson “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”

narrative poem
nondramatic, objective verse; regular rhyme scheme and meter that relates to the narrative
T.S. Eliot’s “Journey of the Magi”
Alfred, Lord Tennyson “Ulysses”

sonnet
rigid fourteen line verse form with varied structure and rhyme scheme according to type

Italian sonnet also known as a
Petrarchan Sonnet

Italian (Petrarchan sonnets) consist of
octave and sestet, between which a break of thought occurs
Ex. John Donne “Death Be Not Proud”

Shakespearean sonnet also known as the ____ sonnet
the English sonnet

Shakespearean sonnet consists of what elements?
1. three quatrains and a couplet
2. iambic pentameter
3. rhyme scheme abba, cddc, effe, gg

Define an ode:
elaborate lyric verse that deals with a dignified theme
Ex: John Donne “Death Be Not Proud”
Elizabeth Barret Browning “How Do I Love Thee”

Define blank verse
unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
Ex: Robert Frost “Mending Wall”
Robert Frost “Birches”

Define free verse
unrhymed lines without regular rhyme
Walt Whitman “The Last Invocation”

Define epic poetry
long, dignified narrative poem that gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race
Ex. John Milton -Paradise Lost
Homer’s -The Iliad and The Odyssey

Define a dramatic monologue
lyric poem where a speaker tells an audience about a dramatic moment in his/her life, revealing his/her character
Robert Browning “My Last Duchess”
T.S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”

define elegy
a mournful poem, esp. one lamenting the dead
Ex: Theodore Roethke “Elegy for Jane”

define ballad
simple, narrative verse that tells a story to be sung or recited

literary ballads have
a single author

folk ballads has
been anonymously passed down from generation to generation

define an idyll
lyric poem describing the life of a shepherd in pastoral and idealistic terms

define villanelle
(19 lines) a French verse form, five tercets and a single quatrain
Ex: Dylan Thomas “Do Not Go Gently into That Good Night”

define light verse
general category of poetry written to entertain

Types of light verse include:
limericks, epigrams, lyric poetry
Lewis Carroll “Jabberwocky”l

Define haiku
Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables often depicting a delicate image

Define a limerick
humorous, nonsense-verse in five lines aabba

define meter
is poetry’s rhythm, or its pattern of stressed and unstressed sylablles

Meter is measured in
feet

Iambic includes
unaccented and accent

trochaic
accent unaccented

anapestic
unaccented, unaccented, accented

dactyllic
accented, unaccented, unaccented

spondaic
accented, accented

Lines are named according to the number of ____ they contain
feet

one foot=
monometer

two feet-
dimeter

three feet =
trimeter

four feet=
tetrameter

five feet=
pentameter***most common
Shakespear

six feet-
hexameter

seven feet=
heptameter

eight feet=
octameter ****very rare

define scansion
analysis of meter

define stanza
lines in a poem

two lines =
couplet

three lines=
tercet

four lines=
quatrain

five lines=
cinquain

six lines=
sestet

seven lines=
septet

eight lines =
octet (octave)

define caesura
a pause in the meter or rhyme of a line often indicated by a symbol — or two parallel lines
Ex: Flood-tide below me!//I see you face to face!

define enjambment
a run-on line into the next without a grammatical break
Ex: Green rustlings, more-than-regal charities
Drift coolly from that tower of whispered light

define rime also spelled rhyme
repetition of like sounds at certain intervals

end rhyme
rhyme occurring at the end of verse

define rhyme scheme and how is it represented
pattern of rhymes within a unit of verse
represented by varying letters
aabbcc

define internal rhyme
rhyme contained within a line of poetry
“The splendor falls on the castle walls”

define masculine rhyme
rhyming in which the last accented syllable of the rhyming words correspond exactly in sounds–it is the most common type of rhyme
Ex: “She walks in beauty of the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that’s best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes;

define feminine rhyme
rhyme in which two consecutive syllables of the rhyming words correspond, the first syllable carrying the accent
Ex: Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying.
Of the pain, the bliss of dying!

Slant rhyme (half rhyme)
imperfect, approximate rhyme
Ex: In the mustered sun
By full tilt river and switchback seas
Where the cormorants send,
In his house on stilts high among the beaks.
***Emily Dickinson known to use this type of rhyme

Define assonance
repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line
Ex: Burnt the fire of thine eyes
(William Blake “The Tiger”)

Define consonance
repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line
Ex: And all is seared with trade; bleared with toil;
And wears man’s smudge and share man’s smell: the soil
(Gerard Manley Hopkins, “GOd’s Grandeur”

define alliteration
repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants, in words within a line
Ex: Bright, black-eyed creature, brushed with brown
(Robert Frost “To a Moth Seen in Winter”

define onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning
Ex: “The buzz saw snarled and rattled in the yard
(Robert Frost, “Out Out”)

define euphony
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect
Ex: I knew a woman, lovely in her bones,
When small birds sighed, she would sigh back at them
(Theodore Roethke, “I Knew a Woman”

define cacophony
the use of inharmonious words in close conjunction for effect; opposite of euphony
Ex: But when loud surges lash the sounding shore
(Alexander Pope, “Sound and Sense”

define conceit
an extended metaphor comparing two unlike objects with powerful effect.
Ex: John Donne’s “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

define apostrophe
an address to a person or personified object not present
Ex: Little lamb, who made thee?
(William Blake, “The Lamb”)

define metonymy
substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself
Ex: “The serpent that did sting thy father’s life.
Now wears his crown.”
(William Shakespeare, Hamlet)

define synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea
Ex: Not a hair perished (person).
(William Shakespeare, The Tempest)

define hyperbole
gross exaggeration for effect: also known as overstatement
Ex: “Love you ten years before the Flood,
And you should, if you please refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.
(Andrew Marvell, “To His Coy Mistress”

define litotes
form of understatement in which the negative of an antonym is used to achieve emphasis and intensity
Ex: he accused himself at bottom and not unveraciously, or a fantastic a demoralized sympathy with her.
(Henry James, The Pupil”

define irony
contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning

verbal irony
meaning on thing and saying another

dramatic irony
occurs when another character(s) and/or the audience know more than one or more characters on stage about what is happening

situational irony
occurs when the outcome of a work is unexpected, or events turn out to be the opposite from what one had expected

symbolism
When a thing represents more than just itself

define aspects of romanticism
when a reader discovers that the world is good and evil and humans are capable of love, friendship, sacrifice, honor, devotion, patriotism, dedication. Evil forces will threaten the hero or heroine, but the hero or heroine triumphs. He/she will face doom with courage, without fear, engaging death, if necessary.
Ex: The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne

define aspects of naturalism
the naturalist writer describes life in its ugliest of forms–scenes of utter despair, poverty, cruel exploitation–all the ills that the flesh follows prey to-
Ex: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath

define aspects of realism
writers deal with aspects of a character’s life just as it is

define aspects of fantasy
aspects of the romantic, realist, and naturalist may appear in a fantasy piece