AP US History CH 12

Topics: ArtArtists

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Last updated: April 24, 2019

Reform movements emerged in America in the mid-nineteenth century in part because of a A. pessimistic assumption in the natural weakness of individuals. B. desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change.

C. belief that society needed to break free from its old traditions. D. fear that civil war was going to engulf the nation. E.

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declining importance placed on religious piety.

B. desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change

In the mid-nineteenth century, the general European attitude toward American art and literature A. was one of growing respect and admiration. B.

was that American artists had little to offer Europe. C. included praise for American artists for defining a new set of national virtues. D.

included criticism of American artists for ignoring romanticism. E. was that it had been hopelessly corrupted by the ideology of unfettered capitalism.

B. was that American artists had little to offer Europe.

All of the following painters were associated with the Hudson River School EXCEPT A.

James Whistler. B. Thomas Cole. C. Frederic Church. D. Albert Bierstadt. E.

Asher Durand.

A. James Whistler.

All of the following people helped create a distinct American literature EXCEPT A. Walt Whitman.

B. Herman Melville. C. James Fenimore Cooper. D.

Edgar Allan Poe. E. Sydney Smith.

E. Sydney Smith.

Walt Whitman A. intensely disagreed with the American transcendentalists. B. rejected much of romanticism.

C. celebrated the liberation of the individual. D. was a strong critic of American democracy. E. became a strong defender of Southern institutions, especially slavery.

C. celebrated the liberation of the individual.

The writings of Edgar Allan Poe were A. primarily sad and macabre. B. mostly ignored during his lifetime.

C. largely focused on Southern society. D. acclaimed by many American writers in his time. E. completely ignored in Europe after his death.

A. primarily sad and macabre.

Transcendentalists A. rejected European intellectuals. B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty. C.

argued that emotional responses inhibited the internal development of individuals. D. believed all individuals should develop their intellectualism. E. argued for the liberating potential of “understanding.”

B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty.

The transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau A.

was more conventional in his thinking than Ralph Waldo Emerson. B. felt every individual should balance society’s expectations with one’s own instincts. C. argued that being part of society helped individuals to transcend their egotism. D. established a college for transcendentalism at Walden Pond.

E. argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.

E. argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.

The primary goal of the 1840s community experiment known as Brook Farm was A.

to create a society where individuals did not have to work. B. to allow individuals to live without any social limits on their behavior.

C. to eliminate social sexual discrimination through a practice of celibacy. D. to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings. E.

to show that communal living was more efficient and productive than family life.

D. to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings.

One of the most enduring of the pre-Civil War utopian colonies was A. Oneida. B. New Harmony. C. Brook Farm. D.

Walden. E. Nauvoo.

A. Oneida.

Which of the following was arguably the most distinctive feature of Shakerism? A. the admittance of women only B.

communal raising of children C. polygamy D. free love E. complete celibacy

E. complete celibacy

Mormonism A. believed in human perfectibility.

B. emphasized individual liberty. C. was founded by Brigham Young. D. began in the Midwest. E.

always rejected polygamy.

A. believed in human perfectibility.

Nineteenth-century Protestant revivalists such as the New Light revivalists A.

sought to revive the ideals of Calvinism. B. believed that no individual could control his or her personal salvation. C. took the lead in the cause to end slavery. D. formed a crusade against personal immorality. E.

believed temperance was detracting from other, loftier reform movements.

D. formed a crusade against personal immorality.

In the 1830s and 1840s, cholera epidemics in the United States A. were transmitted to humans by fleas living on rats. B. led many cities to build water treatment facilities. C. were diminished as physicians gained a basic understanding of bacteria. D. typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease.

E. None of these answers is correct.

D. typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease

During the nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was A.

the absence of regulations in the medical profession. B. the absence of basic knowledge about disease. C. the low social status of medical professionals. D. the difficulty in medical experimentation. E.

the apathy of the general population towards preventative health.

B. the absence of basic knowledge about disease.

Prior to 1860, public education in the United States A.

did not exist. B. gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world. C. was legally denied for all non-whites. D. was funded by the federal government. E.

emphasized independence and creativity.

B. gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.

The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the criminally ill was A.

Susan B. Anthony. B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C. Lucretia Mott. D. Angelina Grimke. E. Dorothea Dix.

E.

Dorothea Dix.

The nineteenth-century practice of placing American Indians on reservations was partially designed to A. isolate and protect Indians from white society. B. help “regenerate” the Indian. C. allow Indians to develop to a point where they could assimilate into white society. D.

All these answers are correct. E. None of these answers is correct.

D. All these answers are correct.

1848 Seneca Falls, New York convention on women’s rights A. issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence.

B. asserted that women should have a place in society distinctly different from men. C. refused to allow men to attend. D.

called on the government to treat both genders and all races with equality. E. shied away from demanding female suffrage as too radical.

A.

issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence.

Which of the following nineteenth-century leaders is primarily known for her pioneering work in the American feminist movement? A. “Mother” Ann Lee B. Harriet Tubman C. Sojourner Truth D. Rachel Eaton E.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

The American Colonization Society helped to transport blacks from the United States to A. the Caribbean. B. Liberia.

C. Angola. D. England. E. Canada.

B. Liberia.

Prior to the Civil War, free blacks in the North tended to be A. deeply antagonistic to William Lloyd Garrison. B. indifferent to slavery in the South. C. anxious to leave the United States. D.

in favor of the “back to Africa” movements. E. strongly opposed to Southern slavery.

E. strongly opposed to Southern slavery.

Frederick Douglass A. was born free but was sold into slavery as a youth.

B. wrote for William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper. C. spent years lecturing in England against slavery. D. was an ordained minister. E. argued that blacks wanted only an end to slavery, and not full social equality.

C. spent years lecturing in England against slavery.

One leading abolitionist who was murdered for his activism was A.

William Lloyd Garrison. B. Frederick Douglass. C.

Sojourner Truth. D. Benjamin Lundy. E. Elijah Lovejoy.

E.

Elijah Lovejoy.

In the 1840s, William Lloyd Garrison spoke against A. equality for women. B.

defensive wars. C. ending the asylum system. D. Northern disunion from the South. E.

extreme pacifism.

B. defensive wars.

Prior to the Civil War, the Liberty Party A. supported the rights of slaveowners. B.

opposed the admission of California into the union in 1850. C. promoted “free soil.” D. focused on strengthening the fugitive slave laws.

E. campaigned for outright abolition.

C.

promoted “free soil.”

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