They relied on nature substances and illusionists to go into a trance and for see a solution to their sickness.
7b. Daoist Poetry
Most poetic scriptures were about nature and trying to live a simple life in harmony with nature.
They always praise the beauty of nature and its mysteries.
7c. Daoist Metallurgy
The Doaist were like the alchemist of China. They had extensive knowledge of different metals and therefore were able to help advance the quality of metal products used by the Chinese.
7d. Daoist Architecture
Daoist mainly influenced temples, altars, and homes. All were mostly made from Earthly materials. Pointed and curved tips of their roofs and used lots of gold and fabrics to dress their alters.
Failure to observe high moral standards would cause disorder and lead to displeasing departed ancestors. The honored ancestors souls to win their favor or regain their goodwill.
8.b The Mediterranean Region
Good and evil was associated with light and darkness. Light was associated with spiritual awareness, and appreciating the ancestors.
8.c East Asia
Chinese tended graves and believed that their ancestors had power to protect and support their families if their descendants displayed proper respect.
8.d The Andean Areas
Mummified the remains of ancestors, which they dressed in fine clothes and adorned at festivals to honor them. The presented them offerings to maintain good relations.
9a. Greek Plays
Plays often dealt with relationships between mortals and gods along with moral issues. Greek plays represented an early effort of people to try and understand the limitations of humans. It resembles Greek philosophy as they both explore the question of what was a person’s purpose and place in the world.
9b. Indian Epics
Indian epics were long narrative poems that centered around heroic deeds that promoted religious values. In the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Arjuna and Krishna exemplify the expectations of Hinduism and told lay classes that they were able to achieve salvation by following their caste duties.
10.a India Architecture
These were a privileged place for high class nobles and priests to enter and showed the way that the people evolved around their religion and beliefs
10.b Greek Architecture
This showed Greece’s dedication to their many gods and showed how to worship which god with the details on the structures for a specific reason.
10.c Roman Architecture
: These advances not only helped the Roman Empire, but it also helped empower cities and helped them to survive and support major buildings and other vital objects.
10.d Mesoamerica Architecture
: Similar to Egypt, Mesoamerica its major influence of religion as a common way of life and it showed their intellectual standpoint from their precise alignment.
11a. Achaemenid Empire
Was the largest multicutlural empire during Persian times, expanding from Anatolia and Egypt to Central Asia.
Were tolerant towards other religions and established the Persian Royal Roads that encouarged trade and brought wealth to the empire.
11b. Parthian Empire
Ruled an empire extending from India to the Mediterranean. Nomads who were considered “restorers of Persian tradition.” Depended on an agricultural society and used horses as an advantage against bows and arows. Were viewed as “well-trained forces of heavily armed calvalry.
Ruled from Parthia to Mesopotamia. Were gifted in engineering and built roads and dams. Also flourished in trade, and introduced cultivation of crops to Iran.
12.a Administrative Institutions in China
The institution of centralized imperial rule led and helped support political organization in China for a long period of time.
b Administrative Institutions in Persia
The appointed administrators from the Achamenid, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid empires formed a small group of people creating a monarchy.
12.c Administrative Institutions in Rome
The Senate gave the people a chance to share their voice but, there was tension between the wealthy and poor due to unfair representation.
12.d Administrative Institutions in South Asia
The caste system created a well organized social structure that lasted for many centuries.
Ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was constructed by Darius I the Great and played the role of Persia’s capital. 550-330 B.
Capital that represented more than 10 dynasties. It means “Perpetual Peace.” It was a prominent world trade and cultural centre.
206 B.C.- 220 AD
A city in ancient India; the Mauryan capital. They were located near three rivers so trade was important to its economy. Built in 490 B.C.E.
Largest city in Greece, as well as, the capital. Considered the model for modern democraciess, where senators discussed matters of state and reached conclusions beneficial to the state.
The centre of the Cathaginian Empire.
They won one of the Punic Wars and was the key factor in the development of Roman influence.
Italic civilization and grew to be one of the largest empires in the world.
They created the Roman Catholic religion, the Roman numerals, the Olympics, the Ancient Collosseum, etc.
The second largest city in Egypt along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
They had three large harbours which helped them become a centre of trade and civilization.
The Byzantine Empire’s capital city; it was the largest and most wealthy European city. It was an important trade center due to its location.
A pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city located in Mexico. It was the center of Aztec life. It was very religious and worshipped day and night.
Used as earliest tax form in Han Dynasty, used to create public works or public buildings- applies to category & time (such methods) because of labor uses and that it marked beginning of taxations
period marked the change from relative equality to the formation of classes based on wealth instead of prowess. Shows beginning of human subjugation resulting from increasingly urban societies
Rents & Tributes
governmental methods used for maintaining the treasury and maintaining control over conquered lands, it fits because it’s a labor form commonly used in the early few centuries. It helped organize society by creating a more stable federal treasury.
14d. Peasant Communities
communities showed the establishment of much more stable agrarian societies, these societies were built on to become the first cities and empires.
Family and Household Production
crucial to the establishment of reorganized society because it created a mostly independent system that could function fully without outside aid, different from the empire systems that were dependant on their overlord’s power
To clear an area of all its forests/trees which drastically hurt the environment and led to failing crops, desertification, soil erosion, etc. Caused issues in the Axum and Mayan empires.
When fertile land becomes a desert over time due to drought, deforestation, etc. Harappans faced this issue in the Indus valley.
The washing away of soil over time by water or overuse, usually as a result of deforestation. Occurred on Easter island and caused a drastic drop in food supply.
Rivers containing copious amounts of silt (sedimentary material of fine particles of earth) which carry less water and are prone to floods. Olmecs faced this issue around 300 BCE.
16.a Between Han China and Xiongnu
Han dynasty was the longest dynasty in China found by Liu Bang and Xiongnu were warriors from an army. There external problems began when Xiongnu captured Liu Bang.
He was able to escape and ever since he followed the policy of centralization.
16.b Between Gupta and White Huns
The Gupta dynasty was established by Chandra Gupta, while the White Huns were nomadic people from Central Asia. Gupta started to face problems with the Huns when they crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains into India and Gupta tried to resist, but it weakend their state because the defence cost them in resources.
16.c Between Romans and northern and eastern neighbors
The Roman empire was establised in 202 BCE and expanded over western and eastern Europe and northern Africa. Besides all the internal problems, they had external problems with invaders from the east. Huns from the north also invaded. Signicantly, Germanic invaders settled in the Roman empire, which was a big factor in the fall of the western part of the Roman empire.
They enabled oxen or other animals to work together and pull larger loads.
They carried loads and allowed people to ride on horses, camels, and other animals traveling.
They supported riders of horses, camels, and other animals during long-distance trade and were essential in later warfare.
Domesticated around 3000BC worldwide, used for transportation, military, and agriculture. They gradually replaced oxen as they pulled faster and more efficiently as new technology developed.
Domesticated in 4000BC, used for plowing and transport in agricultural settings. Even though they pulled heavier loads than horses, they were much slower.
Were the only large domesticated animals in the Americas before 16th century, introduction of horses by the Spanish. They are used as pack animals and for meat.
Camels endured deserts better than horses, making them valuable in desert areas like Arabia, Africa, and Central Asia for trade and transportation.
Changes in Farming and Irrigation Techniques: The Qanat System
A.k.a. underground canals; irrigation techniques/technologies developed by the Persians. Allowed farmers to water their fields without losing any of their water to evaporation; useful in the dry Iranian plateau. Led to increased agricultural production and population growth.
20a. The effects of disease on the Roman Empire
These diseases brought a decline in trade within the empire.
They also caused a move from an integrated economy to many regional economies. They also helped the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman empire because they made people question traditional paganism.
20b. The effects of disease on the Chinese empires
The diseases caused a decrease in trade both within and outside the Han Empire. The economies transitioned from being well-integrated to regional self-sufficient economies.
The spread of Buddhism was also helped because traditional Chinese beliefs were questioned.