AP WORLD (Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties)

What’s another name for the Yellow River?
The Huang He

3 dynasties in order:
Xia, Shang, Zhou

What is loess?
Light-colored soil that picks up and deposits on the riverbank.

What is the Yellow rivers nickname?
China’s Sorrow

Why is the river called China’s Sorrow?
There’s unpredictable flooding

Why didn’t the Yellow river civilization use complex irrigation?
Regular rains and fertile soil eliminated the need for it.

What do they use in place of irrigation?
Water-control systems

What dynasty first attempted to organize public life on a large scale?
The Xia

What did the Xia establish?
The precedent for hereditary monarchical rule

Who was the founder of the Xia dynasty?
Yu

What did Yu do in China?
He initiated flood-control projects, organized large-scale public works, and set up a formal government.

What was the earliest recorded dynasty?
The Shang

What was success in the Shang dynasty based off of?
Technology (bronze)

What did the Shang do with the production of bronze?
They monopolized mines and employed craftsmen

How did the Shang extend control to northeastern china?
By using a well-armed military

What did kings control during the Shang dynasty?
Surplus agriculture ( in about 1,000 towns)

What did the Shang build for rulers?
Lavish tombs

What did the Shang people practice?
Ancestor worship (oracle bones)

What dynasty ruled by proclamation? (Military forces gave out laws and justice)
The Zhou

Who were the Zhou allied with?
The Shang

What did the Zhou do with the Shang?
They adopted their customs and culture, and then overthrew the Shang king.

What was the Zhou theory of politics?
Events of Heaven and Earth are closely related (mandate of heaven)

What were some Zhou cultural achievements?
1.Poetry
2. History
3. Rituals
4. Political essays
5. Morals
6. Religion
7. Philosophy

What is the only preserved example of Zhou literature?
Book of Songs

What was the idea of the Mandate of Heaven?
Events on Earth and in heaven are directly connected.

Where does power to rule come from?
Heavenly powers

What dynasty followed the Mandate of Heaven?
The Zhou

Who is the Mandate of Heaven granted to?
Someone who is deserving (son of Heaven)

What is the rulers duty?
To maintain order and justice

Ruler cycle
As long as his rule goes smoothly, he will remain in power. If he fails the mandate will go to someone more deserving. This was the basis for revolts and rebellions.

This is related to what concept?
Divine right (Europeans)

Who did the Zhou take over?
The Shang

During what dynasty was silk first used?
The Shang Dynasty

How was silk produced?
By raising silk worms on mulberry trees.

Han dynasty silk
Silk was a luxury product in high demand. It’s production was an imperial secret.

Who smuggled silkworms back to their empire to make silk textiles?
The Byzantine monks

When did the chavín cult begin?
After 1,000 b.c.e.

When was it popular?
From 900-800 B.C.E.

Where did it spread?
Peru

Why, and when did the cult arise?
It arose when maize became an important crop, and was needed to support a larger population.

What would the cult promote?
Fertility and abundant harvests.

Chavín achievements
1. Large temple complexes
2. Elaborate works of art
3. Gold
4. Silver
5. Copper
(Led to jewelry and tools)