Arab Israeli Conflict flashcards

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Last updated: May 12, 2019
McMahon-Hussein Agreement
An exchange of letters between the sharif of Mecca, Husayn Bil Ali, and Sir Henry McMahon. McMahon encouraged the Arabs to revolt against the Ottoman empire and if they succeeded England would accept their independence.

Yom Kippur War
(1973) Anwar Sadat wanted peace with Israel as long as they return pre-1967 back to Egypt. Israel refuses and, consequently, Egypt and Syria invade Israel.

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There was early Arab success however, and Israeli counterattack led to a ceasefire.

Oslo Accords
(1993) Agreement between Israel and the PLO, terms go as follows: Mutual recognition, Israel military withdrawal from Gaza and eventually West Bank, and the Palestinian Authority would be a self-governing body.

Camp David Accords
(Sep. 17,1978) Agreement that Egypt would recognize Israel, Israel would withdraw from Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt-Israel peace. Major turning point in Arab-Israeli conflict.

UN General Assembly Partition Resolution
Agreement in which the Jewish state received 55% of land and the Palestinian state would receive 45% of land. Jerusalem would be an international zone.

Balfour Declaration
A letter sent from Arthur Balfour to Lord Rothschild stating that Palestine would be a home of the Jewish people.

1st Intifada
An unorganized, spontaneous Palestinian uprising in West Bank, Gaza, and Jerusalem. Intifada means flood or uprising. Death toll: 160 Israelis (2/3 citizens), and 2,000 Palestinians (Most killed by fellow Palestinians.

2nd Intifada
The second Intifada that occurred from 2000-2005. 3,000 Palestinians were killed and 1,000 Israelis were killed. It began when Ariel Sharon went to the Temple Mount which upset the Palestinians.

Six Day War
Also known as the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, lasted from June 5th-10th. A preemptive Israeli attack wiped out Egyptian air force and Israel stopped Jordanian and Syrian invasion fro the North and West. Israel wins and triples land, which included the Sinai peninsula.

Sykes-Picot Agreement
(1916) A proposed division of land in the Middle East between England and France.

1st Arab-Israeli War
(1948) Israeli forces defeated Syrian, Egyptian, Iraq, Palestinian and Jordanian forces.

Although the Arab countries had more forces Israel won by better organization. This war led to 1949 Armistice Agreement.

One who speaks Arabic or considers themselves to be Arabic.

A language spoken by many Arabs. National language of many middle eastern countries.

One who follows the religion of Islam.

One of the three Abrahamic religions.

Monotheistic and is articulated by the Quran. Muhammed was an important prophet in religion.

Ottoman Empire
A state, (1299-1923) that occupied large portions of the Middle East. In the McMahon-Hussein Agreement the Arabs attempted to revolt against the Ottomans.

Western tendency to stereotype Middle Eastern and Arab people and societies as: Barbaric, primitive, unchanging, exotic, homogenous, etc.

A geographic region situated with the Mediterranean sea to the east, Jordan to the west. This area is occupied by Israel, and palestinian territories.

Democratic state in middle east, Mediterranean is to the east, was formed in 1948 by Zionists.

Many other middle eastern countries have yet to recognize Israel as a sovereign state. Official languages are Arabis, and Hebrew. The state also contains the holy city, Jerusalem, which has many religious sites to all Abrahamic religions.

West Bank
Area in east Israel, west of Jordan. Area where many Palestinians live, and a part of the future Palestinian state.

Gaza Strip
Southwestern Israel, north of Egypt. Area where many Palestinians live, and part of future Palestinian state.

A group of people descending from Palestine, modern day Israel. The Palestinians have had a long-lasting desire for their own state as they have suffered a diaspora.

Citizens or nationals of modern day Israel.

Palestinian Liberation Organization
Organization grounded in 1964 with the purpose of liberating Palestine. Recognized as only legitimate Palestinian representative. Secular.

Yasser Arafat
PLO Chairman 1968-2004.

Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt from 1970-1981 until his assassination, helped negotiate peace with Israel.

Menachem Begin
Former Prime minister of Israel from 1977-1983. Helped negotiate Camp David Accords.

A Palestinian Islamic organization that denied Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

Yad Vashem
Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem

Yitzhak Rabin
Prime Minister of Israel, assassinated by a radical Israeli in 1995. helped negotiate Oslo accords.

Two-state solution
A proposal that Israel and a Palestinian State could both have individual countries in Palestine.

Mahmoud Darwish
A Palestinian poet who is recognized as the poet of Palestine.

1949 armistice borders
Divide area into three states: Israel (77% of land), Jordan (West Bank), and Egypt (Gaza Strip). This solution does not create a Palestinian state.

Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt from 1956-1970. Leader of Pan-Arabism, the idea that a single, Arab state should be created.

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