art history

Topics: ArtArtists

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Last updated: November 24, 2019

absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.), a form of government, usually hereditary monarchy, in which the ruler has no legal limits on his or her power.

birthright
personal characteristics that are inherited at birth, an inheritance coming by right of birth (especially by primogeniture), a right or privilege that you are entitled to at birth

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rococo
fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century, elaborate or overdone, Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits.

, an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm and gentle action

enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, An intellectual movement concentrated in France during the 1700’s developed rational laws to describe social behavior and applied their findings in support of human rights and liberal economic theories.

monticello
name of the home of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson’s stately self-designed home in Virginia that became a model of American architecture

neoclassical
Light and elegant art and architecture inspired by Ancient Greece and Rome. This style reflected Enlightenment ideas and can be seen on many buildings in Washington, DC., relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s, under the influence of the Enlightenments, styles began to change. Arists and architects worked in a simple and elegant style that borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome

academy
an institution for the advancement of art or science or literature, art schools that urged their students to study the famous works of the past as the best way of developing their own skill

salon
gallery where works of art can be displayed, informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas, a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment

regicide
the act of killing a king

romanticism
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization, An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual’s expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions., nineteenth-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason

sublime
elevated; noble; exalted; uplifting, of such excellence, grandeur, or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe

avant-garde
a group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts, the advance group in any field, especially in the visual, literary, or musical arts, whose works are characterized chiefly by unorthodox and experimental methods.

realism
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person.

This style was a response to Romanticism’s supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion

impressionism
a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light, An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing, a movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time

modernity
social patterns resulting from industrialization, a broad movement of thought and practice that came to the fore in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and emphasized scientific progress, reason, and universalism

chromatics
verbal cues and extended cues. How people perceive, use, and respond to time with other . intimacy on Internet., the use of color to communicate messages., when focal length of the light depends on color (lenses only)

tasche
bag, purse, pocket

expressionism
emphasizes the life of the mind and feelings rather than the realistic external details of everyday life

abstraction
a general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples, a focused representation for an actual item, denoting the essential characteristics of an object that distinguish it from all other kinds of object

mont sainte-victoire
Paul Cezanne, Post-Impressionism, Paul Cézanne, 1885 AD, Paul Cezanne. Chunks of color, structure of shapes, very geometric. Uses characteristics with impressionism yet goes against it at the same time.

Bright colors. Focus on landscape., Framing the scene at the left is an evergreen tree, which echoes the contours of the mountain, creating harmony between the two principal elements of the composition. The even lighting, still atmosphere, and absence of human activity in the landscape communicate a sense of timeless endurance, at odds with the Impressionist’s interest in capturing a momentary aspect.

François Boucher
(1700-1770) Rococo painter employed by Louis XIV to paint Madame Pompadour and his other mistresses.

, French Rococo painter, engraver, and designer: painted frivolity and superficiality of French Court., a great French rococo painter who painted middleclass people at home during their daily activities, French Rococo painter known for his voluptuous paintings on classical themes, inspiration from Watteau & Rubens, mythological scenes are passionate and amorous rather than traditionally epic, painted for Madame de Pompadour, “Madame de Pompadour”, “Marie-Louise O’ Murphy”, “Diana leaving the Bath”

thomas jefferson
3rd President of the United States, wrote the declaration of independence, Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

jacques-louis david
French neoclassical painter who actively supported the French Revolution (1748-1825), French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution.

His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793)., A highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity towards a classical austerity and severity.

Théodore Géricault
Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault, important French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. He was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement., paintings of Napoleonic soldiers and shipwrecks, painted “Portrait of an Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge” which criticized the domination of nature and was probably about the French invasion of Russia, also painted “The Rft of the Medusa,” “Man Clutching a Horse in Water” (romanticism), interested in insanity, great romantic painter who painted scenes of suffering heroes that caught the public’s attention

Gustave Courbet
French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes (1819-1877), most famous member of realist school.

Painted only things that he saw. Phrase “realism” was coined in reaction to one of his paintings. All of his works represented everyday life., the most famous artist of the Realist school; the word Realism was first coined in 1850 to describe one of his paintings; reveled in a realistic portrayal of everyday life; his subjects were factory workers, peasants, and the wives of saloon keepers; said ‘I have never seen either angels or goddesses, so I am not interested in painting them.

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre
French inventor of the first practical photographic process, the daguerreotype (1789-1851), invented still photography in 1839

Louis Leroy
a French 19th century engraver, painter, and successful playwright. However, he is remembered as the journalist and art critic for the French satirical newspaper Le Charivari, who coined the term “impressionism”. The term was taken from Claude Monet’s painting, Known for coining the term “Impressionism,” also an important critic of the salons, Art critic whose scoffing article “Le Charivari,” which attacked the seemingly haphazard technique and unfinished look of Monet’s work, coined the term Impressionnistes.

Claude Monet
a French painter who used a impressionism called “super-realism,” capture overall impression of the thing they were painting, Impressionist painter who used color rather than shape to show emphasisPainted a subject several times in different lights (Rouen Cathedral)Water Lilies, Japanese Bridge, A French impressionist painter of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He is known for his feathery brush strokes and for the play of light in his paintings.

His painting Impression, Sunrise gave the name to the impressionist movement.

Paul Cézanne
French postimpressionist painter who influenced modern art (especially cubism) by stressing the structural components latent in nature (1839-1906), A postimpressionist and expressionist who had a profound impact on 20th century art and committed to form, made Impressionism into something “solid and durable”, Post-Impressionist painter used different techniquesdid not try to reproduce nature but to find order in natureView Over Mont Sainte-VictoireFather of modern painting

Vincent Van Gogh
Dutch postimpressionist painter noted for his use of color (1853-1890), A Dutch expressionist who painted a “moving visions in his mind’s eye”, dutch post impressionist artist. painted “the starry night” 1889. mentally ill in later life. cut off his own ear. influential in the world of painting, very famous, used the technique to express feeling (Expressionism), experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors

Hall of Mirrors
ARTISTS: Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le BrunTITLE: Hall of Mirrors, Palais de VersaillesDATE: begun 1678PERIOD: Late BaroqueBaroque features: theatricality, ornamentation, temporal quality (park, mirrors unfolding), built by Louis XIII; Galerie de Glaces, Significant because it Portrayed the king as a god and it shined beautifully when the morning sun came up.

triumph of Venus
ARTISTS: François BoucherTITLE: triumph of VenusDATE: 1740PERIOD: Rococo/ManneristVenus, the story goes, was born of the sea. She was the fruit of Uranus’ amputated genitals, which fell to earth and, in their union with the sea, generated the Goddess of Love. She hovers on a canopy of mother-of-pearl, upholstered with pink and pearl-grey silk and held up by the winds and cupids. She is attended by a court of white naiads and bronzed tritons.Gods, dolphins, fabrics, water, clouds together make up a swirling movement which Boucher has painted in cold colours: blue and turquoise. Both composition and colours belong to the Rococo. The sea blends with a greyish-blue sky and the horizon is not easily distinguishable.-Boucher’s popularity during his career was matched only by his artistic versatility.

In addition to theatre costumes and set designs, tapestries, and designs and decorations for court celebrations, he also dabbled in gouache. This piece is one of only three gouache paintings by the artist. This piece, which was probably produced as an independent work, rather than as a study for a painting, bears a striking resemblance to another one of his paintings, Venus on the Waves. Boucher was a master at depicting idyllic classical scenes, and in this one we see his adeptness at portraying the mythical scene of impassive Venus, surrounded by nymphs and tritons, all paying tribute to the goddess of love.

Oath of the Horatii
ARTISTS: Jacques-Louis DavidTITLE: Oath of the HoratiiDATE: 1784-85PERIOD: Neoclassicism, David: 1784: rigid muscular men contrast lethargic soft women, David;3sons fight against another 3sons &those who won would lead Rome-they won but only one survived; reflects Rev.

; David was @ the Tennis court oath(when the 3rd estate was shut out of the E-Gen they went here) and they made same symbol as in painting, Jacques-Louis David’s painting emphasizing honor and sacrifice for the stateNotes: Used for Political propaganda though it was not painted for that purpose, Neo-Classical. Two rival cities in Rome batteling, the fathers in the cities decide to send three of the best warriors of the city to fight to see which city is the best. This painting is three brothers taking an oath to fight for the death, painted for King Louis.

Theme is obeying paternal authority, like a King or enlightened body politic., Jacques Louis David, 1784, Neoclassicism-celebrates ancient Roman patriotism and sacrifice features statuesque figures and classical architecture -became the painter-ideologist of the French Revolution-strongly believed in depicting noble events in ancient history to instill patriotism and civic virtue in the public-leaders of the warring cities of Rome and Alba decided to resolve their conflicts in a series of encounters waged by three representatives from each side, chose their champions as three Horatius brothers (a sister was the bride to be of one of the Curatius sons, and the wife of the youngest Horatius was the sister of the Curatii)-shows the Horatii as they swear on their swords held high by their father to win or die for Rome, oblivious to the anguish and sorrow of their female relatives-narrative of patriotism and self sacrifice, depicted scene in shallow space like a stage setting, defined by simple architectural framework, statuesque figures, angular forms of men contrasting with curving forms of woman

Monticello
ARTISTS: Thomas JeffersonTITLE: MonticelloDATE: begun 1769PERIOD: Neoclassicismitalian: Little Mountain, Thomas Jefferson’s stately self-designed home in Virginia that became a model of American architecture, The home of Thomas Jefferson, in central Virginia. The mansion, designed by JEfferson himself, is a notable example of the use of ancient forms, such as the dome, in the architecture of his time. It appears on the “tails” side of the nickel. Jefferson’s head is on the front., A gigantic mansion with beautiful grounds near Charlottesville, Virginia – where Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration and the third President, lived.

He also designed it with his neoclassical architectural style to reflect the style of Greece and Rome., The home designed by Thomas Jefferson, southeast of Charlottesville Virginia., Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, 1769-1809, US. Neoclassicism.-based on Roman temple-Neoclassical architect Charles-Louis Clerisseau-felt that Us having won its independence from Britain should free itself and turn for inspiration to the buildings of Rome

Raft of the Medusa
ARTISTS: Théodore GéricaultTITLE: Raft of the MedusaDATE: 1818-19PERIOD: Romanticism, oil, 1820, by Gericault; socially significant painting of people not let into lifeboats by an aristocratic French ship captain. artist was independently wealthy; made a Romantic statement with a Baroque composition, Gericault; Fr Nationalistic theme, political and nature stuggle, a ship was commanded by an aristocrat, it sunk and the captain took liferaft w/ all of his lyalist buddies, commoners made makeshift raft and told ppl on land true story, painted as a public statement , not concerned w/how it looked, wanted to convey how it felt, a painting by Theodore Gericault in the Romantic style, a history painting trying to capture the horrors of the event, a comment about slavery (the artist was against), anti-neoclassical jumble of people, Gericault, Raft of the MedusaBased on 1816 sinking of the Medusa off the coast of Africa, which was carrying french soldiers and settlers.

Sinks in choppy waters, the captain and high ranking officers take the lifeboats and float around 100 of 150 of the men die. Tell stories of severe dystopiaPyrimidal composition shifted to the right.Gericault is fascinated with the insaneIf you follow one tragectory, there’s hope. If you follow another, there’s dark clouds and bad fateEven though the Revolution is over, there are huge revolts.

The Medusa shows the class struggle of france themselvesThe guy waving the cloth– the “hero”– is not white. Which is totally a big deal., Artist: THEODORE GERICAULTYear: 1818-1819Medium: Oil on canvasStyle: RomanticismIn this gigantic history painting, Gericault rejected Neoclassical compositional principles and in the romantic spirit, presented a jumble of writhing bodies in every attitude of suffering, despair and death.

A Burial at Ornans
ARTISTS: Gustave CourbetTITLE: A Burial at OrnansDATE: 1849PERIOD: Realism, It was painted between 1849 and 1850 by Gustave Courbet. Traditionally, paintings as large as this one were reserved for grand scenes like wars or religion. This upset some people because it was just a burial of a poor citizen that used grandeur. Every person in the painting is a real person who attended the funeral. Paintings on canvas became more prevalent because they were easier to manage and lighter.

, Gustave Courbet, 1849.- showed enormous paintings of rural life in the salons- other people insulted the government to the public, but it’s a whole different thing to insult the government in an art institution- this is a painting of 51 people from his hometown at a funeral- women weeping – there is nothing classical about this at all- according to Courbet there was no place for the neo- classical paintings, they were not real(mythological)- he was an extreme realist: “show me an angel and I will paint one”- he wasn’t the realist in the sense that he wanted to paint like a photograph; moreso representing the real conditions of life- he thought that these real people had a right to be represented in the salon, as the neo-classical paintings were.- this painting bothered critics; they didn’t like his style, they said it was deliberately ugly. – he turned to popular culture for inspiration: • it is very flat, no real dimension• the people are sort of stacked on top of each other- the people are old and young, they are also not pretty or idealized. – though not directly, it is deliberately political because of its difference in style – this was not what they expected to see at this time.

Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun)
ARTISTS: Claude MonetTITLE: Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun)DATE:1894PERIOD: impressionism, Monet1869Intensive study of light and colorSeries of painting of the same subjectSame viewpoint but at different times of the dayUnder various climatic conditionsRecord of passing of timeThe subject is really the sunlightRouen Cathedral is a Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France.

It’s the seat of the Archbishop of Rouen and the building of Notre dame Cathedral started in 1200 and contains nearly the entire history of the Gothic style over a period of some 400 years. In the middle ages it’s also where the kings of France were crowned.Rouen is also situated some 60 kilometres from Giverny and is a city which Monet – and the French – knew well.

When looked at from the perspective of his paintings prior to 1892, the important thing to note is that he had never before before focused on one building or architectural element or even painted one motif as often as he did with Rouen Cathedral and its facades.It’s maybe important to note that Turner – the other great painter of atmosphere and light – had also created an engraving of Rouen Cathedral as part of his series on River Scenery in France.The novelty of working with one motif meant that it became imbued with meaning. Hayes Tucker points to the religious revival in France in the 1890s and the fact that a Gothic Cathedral was a distinctly French symbol. Importantly Gothic was perceived in the 1890s as being symbolic

Mont Sainte-Victoire
ARTISTS: Paul CézanneTITLE: Mont Sainte-VictoireDATE: 1885-87PERIOD: Impressionism/ Modernism, Paul Cezanne. Chunks of color, structure of shapes, very geometric. Uses characteristics with impressionism yet goes against it at the same time. Bright colors.

Focus on landscape., Paul Cézanne, 1902One of many views painted of this mountain. Sought a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information. This causes him to form a more analytical style. Lines, planes, colors that comprise nature. Sought to achieve effects of distance, depth, structure, and solidity by recording the color patterns, Cezanne, 1885, France, impressionism/ modernism; oil on canvas; sensations of nature- harmony, structured, ordered; treat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, and the coneThe forms of the mountain and its foothills as well as the surrounding trees are all somewhat simplified and the basic underlying geometric structures are implied. Many of the trees and greenery have spherical or conical shapes, demonstrating Cezanne’s theory of form.

Along with his ideas on form, Cezanne was also aware of the newest colour theories of the time period. He demonstrated this knowledge in Mont Sainte-Victoire as Seen From Bibemus Quarry. He uses warm colours and cool colours to give the illusion of depth without mathematical perspective. He uses warm oranges in the foreground because of the illusion warm colours give of advancing in space, while cool colours, like those of the bluish-purple mountain and the vivid blue sky, give the appearance of receding back into space.

Starry Night
ARTISTS: Vincent Van GoghTITLE: Starry NightDATE: 1889PERIOD: Post-Impressionism, Vincent van Gogh expresses his personal feelings about his belief that people journey to a star after death, Vincent Van Gogh, uses expressive line and it’s loose and free. Life and Death, The town and the Heavens collide, Demonstrates the use of intense colors.

, Vincent van Gogh, 1889 The sky is not represented, rather he communicated his feelings toward the vastness of the universe. Church nestled in the center of the villiage is an attempt to express or reconcile his conflicted views of religion.

The Marriage Contract
ARTISTS: William HogarthTITLE: The Marriage ContractDATE: 1743-45PERIOD: Neoclassicism, Hogarth. Rococo. Part of marriage a al mode. Pokes fun at the hypocrisy of arranged marriages. Both fathers marry for their benefit. Wife is upset.

Groom is bored of the situation and has an STD., William Hogarth, 1743-45, England. Rococo-inspired by Joseph Addison’s essay, the Spectator. -Promoted the concept of marriage based on love rather than aristocratic intrigue. -painting of an arranged marriage of son to daughter of a wealthy merchant.

Merchant gains entry into aristocracy, while Lord gets money from merchant to complete his house which is shown in the window., continue close relationship, socialize with others as a unit, to have and maintain a common domicile, raise a family together, fairness when working towards goals, and sexual fulfillment

Baroque
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century, elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

Rococo
fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century, Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.

Neoclassicism
literary movement of the 17th and 18th centuries meant to retrieve the ideals of the Greeks and Romans

Romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason, a literary movement with an emphasis on the imagination and emotions

Realism
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth, mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower-and middle-class life as it actually was

Impressionism
a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light, Major Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s.Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful.

Post-impressionism
An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.

, 1890s- first years of 1900s France (Emotion through color) Departed from impressionism because they wanted more personal meaning/emotion in their paintings Van Gogh (Starry Night), Matisse (Woman with Hat) Cezanne (still lives of fruit ), a few artists that tried impressionism and struck out were known as this. Wanted to express a complicated psychological view of reality as well as emotional intensity.

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