Art of Literature: Poetry

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Last updated: December 7, 2019

Speaker
The voice the poet wants to be heard

Doggerel
For lines whose subject matter is trite and whose rhythm and sounds are monotonously heavy-handed

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Paraphrase
A prose restatement of central ideas of a poem in your own language

Anagrams
Words made from the letters of other words, such as read and dare

Theme
A central idea or meaning

Narrative Poem
Poem that tells a story

Epic
A long narrative poem on a serious subject chronicling heroic deeds and important events

Diction
The choice of words

Poetic Diction
18th Century, very elevated

Formal Diction
Elevated

Middle Diction
Common words, less formal, some education

Informal Diction
Dialect, conversational

Denotation
Literal meaning of the word

Connotation
The words that go along with the literal meaning

Ambiguity
Things that could be interpreted many different ways

Allusion
Reference to anything, uses that word for larger meaning

Image
Language that addresses the senses

Figures of Speech
A way of saying one thing in terms of something else

Simile
Makes an explicit comparison between two things by using words such as like, as, than, appears, or seems

Metaphor
Makes a comparison between two unlike things, but it does so implicitly without words such as like or as

Implied Metaphor
It does not explicitly identify the man with a mule, it hints at the mule

Extended Metaphor
Which part or all of the poem consists of a series of related metaphors or similes

Controlling Metaphor
When comparisons are at work throughout the entire poem

Pun
A play on words that relies on a word having more than one meaning or sounding like another word

Synecdoche
Figure of speech in which part of something is using to signify the whole “wagging tongue” = gossip

Metonymy
Something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it

Personification
The attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things

Apostrophe
An address to either someone who is absent and who cannot hear the speaker or to something that is nonhuman and cannot comprehend

Overstatement and Hyperbole
Adds emphasis without intending to be literally true

Understatement
Says less than is intended

Paradox
Statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory

Oxymoron
Condensed form of paradox in which two contradictory words are used together

Allegory
The narration is restricted to one single meaning

Cosmic Irony
Uses God, faith. .

.to ridicule characters, people in general

Ballad
Almost a song, alternating eight and six syllable lines

Rhythm
The recurrence stressed and unstressed sounds

Stress
Places more emphasis on one syllable than the other

Meter
Rhythmic pattern of stresses recurs in a poem

Prosody
All the metrical elements in a poem

Scansion
Measuring the stresses in a line to determine its metrical pattern

Foot
Metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured

Iambic Pentameter
The iambic rhythm of this line falls into five feet

Rising Meter
Iambic and Anapestic, they move from unstressed to stressed

Falling Meter
Trochaic and Dactylic

Line
Measured by the number of feet it contains

Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter

Spondee
A two syllable foot in which both syllables are stressed

Pyrrhic
Foot which consists of two unstressed syllables

Masculine Ending
A line which ends with a stressed syllable

Feminine Ending
A line that ends with an extra stressed unstressed syllable

Caesura
A pause within a line

Enjambment
Running over from one line to another

Fixed Forms
Can be categorized by the patterns of its lines, meter, rhymes, and stanzas

Open Form
Do not conform to established patterns of meter, rhyme, and stanza

Sonnet
14 lines, “little song”, iambic pentameter usually

Italian Sonnet
Two parts, octave (abbaabba) or sestet

English Sonnet
Four part organization

Villanelle
Nineteen lines, six stanzas, five tercets and concluding quatrains

Epigram
Brief, pointed, witty poem, most rhyme and written in couplets

Limerick
Light and humorous, five lines rhyming aabba, lines 1, 2, and 5 contain 3 feet, while 3 and 4 contain 2

Haiku
Seventeen syllables organized into 3 unrhymed lines of 5, 7, 5 syllables

Ode
Serious topic, formal tone, no formal pattern

Those Winter Sundays
Author-Robert Hayden”fearing the chronic angers of that house”Last two lines, dad makes quiet sacrificesLove is difficult and it doesn’t come easy Speaker wishes he could go back with the knowledge he has now

Dogs Death
Author-John Updike”Good Dog! Good Dog!””And her heart was learning to lie down forever”Speaker is the father of the family

Oh, Oh
Author-William Hathaway Hell’s Angels (motorcycle group)Growling (noise of the motorcycle)Couple is very young (“my girl and I” “When I hear trains at night I dream of being president” “The choo-choo light is on”)

Mountain Graveyard
Author-Robert MorganWhole thing is an anagramstone notes (head stones) slate tales (name and more) sacred cedars (big, green year round) asleep please (person is old and ready to die)spore prose?

L(a
Author-E.E.

Cummings leaf falls (lead of a family tree falling off-dying)lyric poem

Introduction to Poetry
Author-Billy CollinsBeing constricted-can’t think outside the boxDon’t force meaning out of it, experience it

Magic of Love & Love Poem
Authors-Magic of love is very cliche, HallmarkLove Poem is not as positiveNothing is not as goos as Magic of LoveThey’re sharing things, whats his is whats hers

We Real Cool
Author-Gwendolyn BrooksThey’re having fun but they’e going to die soonPeople who have no specific purpose other than playing poolA lot of alliterationRhymes, repeatsHow these certain people won’t have the opportunities that others do…they’re always going to be left out in society The Golden Shovel “the pool hall” the shovel that is going to bury themHer attitude toward the poem is almost anger, these young men are not going to survive

We Old Dudes
Author-Joan MurrayTone is humorous Republican “We soon dead”..

.ya well thats coming kind of attitude

The Larynx
Author-Alice JonesDescribing the wind pipeThe poem is shaped like a larynxThe entire poem was all one sentence

Poem
Author-William Carlos WilliamsImage of a cat automatically appears in your headThe movement of the poem

Calvary Crossing a Ford
Author-Walt WhitmanSoldiers passing through a riverGoing from battle to battle The colors contradict the wordsThe soldiers are happy, their clothes are cleanFlags for different units of the army

Poetry Should Ride the Bus
Author-Ruth FormanPoetry should be happy like people in a crack houseLife stages…

Hopskotch to GrandkidsSpeaker is an old lady, its her growth from a young girl to an old womanTone…Happy, kinda sarcastic, everything can be more optimistic and more beautiful than it really is Diction..

.comings and goings very informal

Dulce et Decorum Est
Author-Wilfred OwenIt is sweet and sitting to die for ones country..WW1Poisoned gas..

.thick green smog…incurable.

..violent suffering, only war gas was used

On the Differences between Poetry and Prose
Author-T.E. HulmeLanguage and Imagery, what separates the twoPoetry is more abstract, prose is more concretePoet keeps you interested, interact

How Poetry Comes to Me
Author-Gary SnyderVerbal irony

Making it in Poetry
Author-Bob HicokVerbal Irony What actually happens in poetry

Schizophrenia
Author-Jim StevensPersonificationRepetition “It was the house that suffered most” 2x, beginning and end

Scarborough Fair
Author-End line was always the same”Parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme”One of the oldest poemsBallad

Player Piano
Author-John UpdikePlayer piano is one that play themselvesInternal Rhyme

The Trains
Author-William HeyenAbout the Holocaust Outrageous, maybe we’re blind to some of these thingsThe camps 3 syllables sound like the freight car

A Bird Came Down the Walk
Author-Emily DickinsonA lot of imagery Sense movement in the poemEverything cohesive, nature is onePlashless, made up word

The Word Plum
Author-Helen ChasinDescriptive about the word itselfIsn’t sending a message, expressing an event

Delight in Disorder
Author-Robert HerrickIambic Pentameter

The Lamb & The Tyger
Author-William BlakeTrotaic PentameterAABB rhyme scheme, masculineTone, Lamb is gentle, Tyger is harsh and evilThey tie into one another

The Facebook Sonnet
Author-Sherman AlexieEnding is powerfulCouldn’t stop at the end of each line

Unholy Sonnet
Author-Mark JarmanUnexpected ending lineReligious practices don’t change man based thingsSaying church can’t change who you areOctave first person, sestet is second person

Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
Author-Dylan ThomasSpeaker doesn’t want them to dieHe’s using the word rage as compassionOverall metaphor days in is deathApostrophe is fatherPun is grave menHighly structuredOxymoron blinding sight

Epitaph on a Waiter
Author-David McCordWhen you’re waiting for a refill but your waiter never comes

There Was a Young Lady Named Bright
Authors-Arthur Henry and Reginald Butlerlimerickvery light

In Medias Res
Author-Michael McFeeBelly’s hibernation, poem takes shapeIt’s how life is

Directions for Resisting the SAT
Author-Richard HagueTelling kids that it sucks and to not put too much emphasis on this testHe assumes everyone hates the SAT, and that everyone stresses out about it

Death Be Not Proud
Author-John DooneOld english poemNot afraid of death because you leave a legacy and its inevitable (death)

After a Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes
Author-Emily DickinsonDickinson see’s death in a different way Imagery is prevalent

I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died
Author-Emily DickinsonFly’s are attracted to dead meat, dead bodiesFly has a buzz, conscientious Using the fly to replace her savior, she’s doubting revelation

Because I Could Not Stop for Death
Author-Emily Dickinson”He kindly stopped for me”Has no fear of death, slowly drove, slow death?Swelling of the ground=graveReligious, but religious ideas were not what people of her time thought

I Dwell in Possibilities
Author-Emily DickinsonAlways more possibilities

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