ASSIGNMENT increases storage capacity e. It helps to costs

        ASSIGNMENT3             Reg. No :                   16APC2768Name :                       M.K.

C FernandoSubject :                    Information SystemsInfrastructure – CS112XXDepartment :           Department of Computing AndInformation Systems Contents1.TermComputer Network. 1Advantages of ComputerNetworks. 1Disadvantages of ComputerNetworks. 12.Advantages andDisadvantages of e-mail 2Advantages.

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2Disadvantages. 23.Client/Server Networkand VPN network. 3a.      Client/servercomputer Network. 3b.      VirtualPrivate Network.

3c.      Disk cleanup. 4d.      Diskdefragmenting. 4e.

      Backup. 54. Compare and contrastthe RAID Levels. 6o       RAID 0 vs RAID 1. 6o       RAID 0 vs RAID 2. 6o       RAID 0 vs RAID 3. 7o       RAID 0 vs RAID 4.

7References. 8    1.Term ComputerNetworkComputer Network is simply acollection of computers work together to perform a communication function witheach other. These computers are mostly connected via cabling(Ethernet cabling)or via radio waves. These servers share resources like printers, file serversetc. Examples for some computer networks are LAN(Local Area Network, WAN(WideArea Network), PAN(Personal Area Network), VPN(Virtual Private Network) etc.

.Types of networks are categorized by characteristics like topology(eg: bustopology, tree topology), protocol(for LAN, it is Ethernet), architecture(peerto peer architecture or client server architecture).The computer networks areused in sharing and transferring information so people should be aware of usingit effectively. They should know about the viruses and malwares which canaffect the system.   Advantages of Computer Networksa.     It makes the file sharingmore easierb.

     It allows more people toget information they want in same timec.      It is more flexibled.     It increases storagecapacitye.     It helps to costsreductionf.       It increases costsefficiencyg.     It helps in moreconvenient resource sharingDisadvantages of Computer Networksa.

     The system will be uselessif the main server breaks downb.     The security problems arearise because of the large number of usersc.      It lacks robustnessd.     It will gain more virusesand malwares.e.

     It will promote illegalactsf.       It requires highly skilledperson to handle for it,s operations and administrationg.     It needs highly costs setups.   2.Advantagesand Disadvantages of e-mailAdvantagesItis easy to handle            Email is a social media which we usemostly in official mailing. It is very easy to use and clear. We can arrangethe messages as we wished. When you are already online it is free.

We can keepour mails safe and logical manner.Therewe have important, spam , sent mails, inbox like options we make us easy tohandle and save our time of finding different category mails. Ithas fastest speed            From a second we can send a mail tothe other person . It is a great advantage in email as it save our time and thereceiver’s time.

We can  also add asubject of what we are sending and it makes receiver easily to understand thecontent of the mail .Andwe can have multiple number of accounts. It is very easy to handle them withmulti handleing accounts. DisadvantagesSpamMailsAs everyone widely using email, There may be so manymails per a day.

This mails can be most wanted or unwanted. Some mails maycause threats to your computer the are called spam messages. It may cause newviruses to your computer. To get rid of these viruses you have to install antivirus guards which cost high.   Lackingof personal inter relationships            The mail which typed an sent throughemail are not feel like our own hand written letter.

So we are being lackingidea about person day by day. It can not never beat a hand written card. We cannot express our true feelings by emailing .3.Client/ServerNetwork and VPN networka.     Client/server computer NetworkThisnetwork connects computers together.

The computers are called clients and themain computer is called the server. The server computer handles and manage theapplications and programs . Sharing application programs and files among clientside computers are also done by this server side computers. Mostly these kindof computers handles databases. Some of the server side computers are minicomputers, mainframe computers which are highly powered work stations. Theclient side computers are normally attached to the  Local Area Network(LAN).

It provides thegraphical interface. They handles the presentation logics, processing logicsand storage logics.File server is manages file operations. This file server islike a additional hard drive for all the computers in the system.Themain difference about client side and server side computers are, the serverside computers are more storable and it has the highest speed than client sidecomputers. Some of the server machines are dedicated to do a specifics tasksuch as printing, managing etc. There is always a administrator to handleserver computer.b.

     Virtual Private NetworkTheVPN, Virtual Private Network is a network which gives a safe and encrypted connectioneven in a very unsecure network. The most common example for VPN is Internet.As the VPN was developed because to remote users and office to access securelyapplications and other resources. The VPN users use passwords, tokens to ensurethe safety. Some of the protocols used to secure was the IP secdurity(IP Sec),Secure Socket Layer(SSL) and Transport Layer Security(TLS), Point to PointTunneling Protocol({{TS), Layer 2 Tunneling protocol(L2TP), OpenVPN.

Thereare two types of VPN as Remote access VPN ,Site to Site VPN. The remote access VPNuses public telecommunication infrastructure like internet to provide secure tothe organization’s network and  remoteusers. This widely wants when people use public Wi-Fi hotpots. To secure itsconnection it uses IP Sec and Secure Socket Layer. In Sie to Site VPN, it usesgateway device to connect whole network to a one location. Most of this VPNuses IP Sec. It also use carrier MLPS clouds as the transport of VPN rather thausing internet for it.c.

      Disk cleanupItis a software made by Microsoft company for the better maintenance of acomputer in Windows 98 and all the windows came after that. It is a secure wayof deleting unwanted files and folders. It can also help in fastening computerand make higher the performs of the computer. To maintain a good speed andbetter performance , it should run the disk cleaner once a month.

It can deletetemporary internet files. Thedifferent targeted file categories of disk cleanup are old files, temporarywindows files, internet files , downloaded program files, recycle bin, set uplog files, offline web pages etc.Diskcleanup is not only deleting unnecessary files but also it compressed filestogether and it makes more free space in the hard drive. The access time of acompressed file may differ from one computer to other.d.

     Disk defragmentingDiskdefragmenting is the process of positioning of the non congruous data fragmentsof data into which a computer file may be divided as it is stored in hard disk,rearranging divide them in to small fragments. This disk defragmentation helpsto reduce the accessing time of data and makes the storage efficient manner. InWindows 98, there came a tool called “system tool” comes with a built in tooldefragmentation. Windows 2000 came with a “light” version of Diskeeperdefragmentation. The Windows XP came with a utility called “disk defragmenter”.Tounderstand what is disk defragmentation, first we have to have knowledge abouthow a hard disk works, how a file system works and how a fragmentation reallyhappens.

Hard disk contains moving parts, platters and write read head. Everytime we opened a file the signal goes to the CPU and it send it hard disk.There is a myth that when defrags don’t touch your mouse. That is only a fearin people minds.

Safe mode defrag is not a harmful thing. e.     BackupBackup data is simply coping and archiving computerdata and it may used to restore the original after data loss. There are twopurposes of backup. The primary purpose is to recover the data loss by datadeletion or corruption.

The data loss is a common experience when using acomputer. The secondary purpose is to recover data loss according to a userdefined retention policy. It is simply adisaster recovery system and it should not be considered as full disasterrecovery plan. A backup system should have at least one copy of all data whichseems like important. It is not easy to organize storage space and managementof backup processes. The storage structure may use a data repository model innowadays.

There are many various types of data security storagedevices which are useful in backups and also there are many ways like providegeographic redundancy, data security and portability.Data Repository Method is the main strategy ofbackups. These backup data should be stored and well organized. Example ofbackup media is CDs.  There are two typesof repository data  as Unstructured, FullOnly(System imaging) and Reverse Delta. The full only again has two areas asdifferential and incremental.

Storagemedias are hard disk, Magnetic tape, optical storage, solid state storage, remotebackup service, floppy disk etc. The magnetic tape is the most common mediumfor bulk, backups. Some new tape drives are more faster than hard disks. Thehard disk is more competitive with magnetic tape. It is also a bulk storagemedium. Optical storage mediums are less powerful when comparing with tap orhard disk. It has low speed and capacity.

Ecordable CDs, DVDs and Blue-ray DVDsare examples for optical storage. Sold Stste Storage has capacity than harddisks but it is good for small volumes backups. It is more expensive than harddisks. The remote backup service is getting popular because of broadbandinternet access. Internet is slower than loal storage devices.    4.Compare and contrast the RAID Levels o  RAID 0 vs RAID 1 RAID 0 RAID 1 Data is distributed across the disks in the array.

All data replicated on 2 disks Lower than single disk Higher than RAID 2,3,5 but lower than RAID 6 Lower than single disk higher than single disk Very high for read and write Twice similar to single disk   o  RAID 0 vs RAID 2 RAID 0 RAID 2 Data is distributed across the disks in the array. Data is protected by hamming codes.   No redundant information is provided Redundant information distributed across the number of disks Lower than single disk Much higher than single disk Very high highest                     o  RAID 0 vs RAID 3 RAID 0 RAID 3 Data is distributed across the disks in the array. No redundant information is provided Each data sector is subdivided and distributed across all data disks.

Redundant data is normally stored on dedicated parity disk.   Lower than single disk   Much higher than single disk compared to RAID 2,4 or 5   Very high   highest   Very high for read and write   Twice similar to single disk    o  RAID 0 vs RAID 4 RAID 0 RAID 4 Data is distributed across the disks in the array. No redundant information is provided. Data sectors distributed as with disk striping Redundant data is stored on dedicated parity disk. Lower than single disk Much higher than single disk compared to RAID 2,3, or 5 Very high Similar to disk striping Very high for read and write Similar to disk striping  

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