At a Physical level sound is simply a mechanical disturbance of the medium(Book, year) This is a very brief explanation of how sound works, more complexly sound can be described as molecules propagating(or a variation of pressure) through a medium such as air. The molecules compress as the sound travels through the medium then rarefaction occurs where the pressure between each molecule is low thus they are far apart. The type of sound wave produced from this is called longitudinal. The oscillations of the longitudinal waves travel in the same direction as the direction energy transfer. The velocity at which the particles are traveling is also an important aspect as this can determine the …………………….The velocity can depend on both the mass of the molecule and the young’s modulus if the medium is a solid or the Adiabatic gas law for a gas such as air. The Adiabatic gas law is used because there is no elasticity in a gas and the disturbance moves very fast so there is no time for heat to transfer from compressions to rarefactions. The velocity of sound in a gas is strongly affected by the absolute temperature and the molecular weight of the gas.
Transverse waves are moving waves. They consist of the oscillations occurring at a right angle to the direction of energy travel. An example of where transverse waves occur are the strings of a guitar when they are plucked or any other instrument that uses strings. The velocity of these waves will be affected by the the tension and the mass.
The Tension can change the frequency of the sound as the stronger the tension the higher the frequency thus the faster the wave will propagate and the lower tension the lower the frequency thus the slower the wave will propagate. In a guitar string the tension is related to the frequency and the tuning of the strings. Other types of waves are the quasi-longitudinal waves which propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal way.